This paper introduces an online model for object detection in videos designed to run in real-time on low-powered mobile and embedded devices. Our approach combines fast single-image object detection with convolutional long short term memory (LSTM) layers to create an interweaved recurrent-convolutional architecture. Additionally, we propose an efficient Bottleneck-LSTM layer that significantly reduces computational cost compared to regular LSTMs. Our network achieves temporal awareness by using Bottleneck-LSTMs to refine and propagate feature maps across frames. This approach is substantially faster than existing detection methods in video, outperforming the fastest single-frame models in model size and computational cost while attaining accuracy comparable to much more expensive single-frame models on the Imagenet VID 2015 dataset. Our model reaches a real-time inference speed of up to 15 FPS on a mobile CPU.
In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the imbalance problems in object detection. To analyze the problems in a systematic manner, we introduce a problem-based taxonomy. Following this taxonomy, we discuss each problem in depth and present a unifying yet critical perspective on the solutions in the literature. In addition, we identify major open issues regarding the existing imbalance problems as well as imbalance problems that have not been discussed before. Moreover, in order to keep our review up to date, we provide an accompanying webpage which catalogs papers addressing imbalance problems, according to our problem-based taxonomy. Researchers can track newer studies on this webpage available at: https://github.com/kemaloksuz/ObjectDetectionImbalance .
Current state-of-the-art convolutional architectures for object detection are manually designed. Here we aim to learn a better architecture of feature pyramid network for object detection. We adopt Neural Architecture Search and discover a new feature pyramid architecture in a novel scalable search space covering all cross-scale connections. The discovered architecture, named NAS-FPN, consists of a combination of top-down and bottom-up connections to fuse features across scales. NAS-FPN, combined with various backbone models in the RetinaNet framework, achieves better accuracy and latency tradeoff compared to state-of-the-art object detection models. NAS-FPN improves mobile detection accuracy by 2 AP compared to state-of-the-art SSDLite with MobileNetV2 model in  and achieves 48.3 AP which surpasses Mask R-CNN  detection accuracy with less computation time.
Benefit from the quick development of deep learning techniques, salient object detection has achieved remarkable progresses recently. However, there still exists following two major challenges that hinder its application in embedded devices, low resolution output and heavy model weight. To this end, this paper presents an accurate yet compact deep network for efficient salient object detection. More specifically, given a coarse saliency prediction in the deepest layer, we first employ residual learning to learn side-output residual features for saliency refinement, which can be achieved with very limited convolutional parameters while keep accuracy. Secondly, we further propose reverse attention to guide such side-output residual learning in a top-down manner. By erasing the current predicted salient regions from side-output features, the network can eventually explore the missing object parts and details which results in high resolution and accuracy. Experiments on six benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach compares favorably against state-of-the-art methods, and with advantages in terms of simplicity, efficiency (45 FPS) and model size (81 MB).
Transferring image-based object detectors to domain of videos remains a challenging problem. Previous efforts mostly exploit optical flow to propagate features across frames, aiming to achieve a good trade-off between performance and computational complexity. However, introducing an extra model to estimate optical flow would significantly increase the overall model size. The gap between optical flow and high-level features can hinder it from establishing the spatial correspondence accurately. Instead of relying on optical flow, this paper proposes a novel module called Progressive Sparse Local Attention (PSLA), which establishes the spatial correspondence between features across frames in a local region with progressive sparse strides and uses the correspondence to propagate features. Based on PSLA, Recursive Feature Updating (RFU) and Dense feature Transforming (DFT) are introduced to model temporal appearance and enrich feature representation respectively. Finally, a novel framework for video object detection is proposed. Experiments on ImageNet VID are conducted. Our framework achieves a state-of-the-art speed-accuracy trade-off with significantly reduced model capacity.
This work aims to solve the challenging few-shot object detection problem where only a few annotated examples are available for each object category to train a detection model. Such an ability of learning to detect an object from just a few examples is common for human vision systems, but remains absent for computer vision systems. Though few-shot meta learning offers a promising solution technique, previous works mostly target the task of image classification and are not directly applicable for the much more complicated object detection task. In this work, we propose a novel meta-learning based model with carefully designed architecture, which consists of a meta-model and a base detection model. The base detection model is trained on several base classes with sufficient samples to offer basis features. The meta-model is trained to reweight importance of features from the base detection model over the input image and adapt these features to assist novel object detection from a few examples. The meta-model is light-weight, end-to-end trainable and able to entail the base model with detection ability for novel objects fast. Through experiments we demonstrated our model can outperform baselines by a large margin for few-shot object detection, on multiple datasets and settings. Our model also exhibits fast adaptation speed to novel few-shot classes.
We introduce Spatial-Temporal Memory Networks for video object detection. At its core, a novel Spatial-Temporal Memory module (STMM) serves as the recurrent computation unit to model long-term temporal appearance and motion dynamics. The STMM's design enables full integration of pretrained backbone CNN weights, which we find to be critical for accurate detection. Furthermore, in order to tackle object motion in videos, we propose a novel MatchTrans module to align the spatial-temporal memory from frame to frame. Our method produces state-of-the-art results on the benchmark ImageNet VID dataset, and our ablative studies clearly demonstrate the contribution of our different design choices. We release our code and models at http://fanyix.cs.ucdavis.edu/project/stmn/project.html.
In this paper, we propose an efficient and fast object detector which can process hundreds of frames per second. To achieve this goal we investigate three main aspects of the object detection framework: network architecture, loss function and training data (labeled and unlabeled). In order to obtain compact network architecture, we introduce various improvements, based on recent work, to develop an architecture which is computationally light-weight and achieves a reasonable performance. To further improve the performance, while keeping the complexity same, we utilize distillation loss function. Using distillation loss we transfer the knowledge of a more accurate teacher network to proposed light-weight student network. We propose various innovations to make distillation efficient for the proposed one stage detector pipeline: objectness scaled distillation loss, feature map non-maximal suppression and a single unified distillation loss function for detection. Finally, building upon the distillation loss, we explore how much can we push the performance by utilizing the unlabeled data. We train our model with unlabeled data using the soft labels of the teacher network. Our final network consists of 10x fewer parameters than the VGG based object detection network and it achieves a speed of more than 200 FPS and proposed changes improve the detection accuracy by 14 mAP over the baseline on Pascal dataset.
In this paper we describe a new mobile architecture, MobileNetV2, that improves the state of the art performance of mobile models on multiple tasks and benchmarks as well as across a spectrum of different model sizes. We also describe efficient ways of applying these mobile models to object detection in a novel framework we call SSDLite. Additionally, we demonstrate how to build mobile semantic segmentation models through a reduced form of DeepLabv3 which we call Mobile DeepLabv3. The MobileNetV2 architecture is based on an inverted residual structure where the input and output of the residual block are thin bottleneck layers opposite to traditional residual models which use expanded representations in the input an MobileNetV2 uses lightweight depthwise convolutions to filter features in the intermediate expansion layer. Additionally, we find that it is important to remove non-linearities in the narrow layers in order to maintain representational power. We demonstrate that this improves performance and provide an intuition that led to this design. Finally, our approach allows decoupling of the input/output domains from the expressiveness of the transformation, which provides a convenient framework for further analysis. We measure our performance on Imagenet classification, COCO object detection, VOC image segmentation. We evaluate the trade-offs between accuracy, and number of operations measured by multiply-adds (MAdd), as well as the number of parameters
We introduce Spatial-Temporal Memory Networks (STMN) for video object detection. At its core, we propose a novel Spatial-Temporal Memory module (STMM) as the recurrent computation unit to model long-term temporal appearance and motion dynamics. The STMM's design enables the integration of ImageNet pre-trained backbone CNN weights for both the feature stack as well as the prediction head, which we find to be critical for accurate detection. Furthermore, in order to tackle object motion in videos, we propose a novel MatchTrans module to align the spatial-temporal memory from frame to frame. We compare our method to state-of-the-art detectors on ImageNet VID, and conduct ablative studies to dissect the contribution of our different design choices. We obtain state-of-the-art results with the VGG backbone, and competitive results with the ResNet backbone. To our knowledge, this is the first video object detector that is equipped with an explicit memory mechanism to model long-term temporal dynamics.
We present a method for detecting objects in images using a single deep neural network. Our approach, named SSD, discretizes the output space of bounding boxes into a set of default boxes over different aspect ratios and scales per feature map location. At prediction time, the network generates scores for the presence of each object category in each default box and produces adjustments to the box to better match the object shape. Additionally, the network combines predictions from multiple feature maps with different resolutions to naturally handle objects of various sizes. Our SSD model is simple relative to methods that require object proposals because it completely eliminates proposal generation and subsequent pixel or feature resampling stage and encapsulates all computation in a single network. This makes SSD easy to train and straightforward to integrate into systems that require a detection component. Experimental results on the PASCAL VOC, MS COCO, and ILSVRC datasets confirm that SSD has comparable accuracy to methods that utilize an additional object proposal step and is much faster, while providing a unified framework for both training and inference. Compared to other single stage methods, SSD has much better accuracy, even with a smaller input image size. For $300\times 300$ input, SSD achieves 72.1% mAP on VOC2007 test at 58 FPS on a Nvidia Titan X and for $500\times 500$ input, SSD achieves 75.1% mAP, outperforming a comparable state of the art Faster R-CNN model. Code is available at https://github.com/weiliu89/caffe/tree/ssd .