《Deep Learning Based Detection and Correction of Cardiac MR Motion Artefacts During Reconstruction for High-Quality Segmentation》I Oksuz, J R. Clough, B Ruijsink, E P Anton, A Bustin, G Cruz, C Prieto, A P. King, J A. Schnabel [King’s College London] (2019)

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3D Morphable Model (3DMM) based methods have achieved great success in recovering 3D face shapes from single-view images. However, the facial textures recovered by such methods lack the fidelity as exhibited in the input images. Recent work demonstrates high-quality facial texture recovering with generative networks trained from a large-scale database of high-resolution UV maps of face textures, which is hard to prepare and not publicly available. In this paper, we introduce a method to reconstruct 3D facial shapes with high-fidelity textures from single-view images in-the-wild, without the need to capture a large-scale face texture database. The main idea is to refine the initial texture generated by a 3DMM based method with facial details from the input image. To this end, we propose to use graph convolutional networks to reconstruct the detailed colors for the mesh vertices instead of reconstructing the UV map. Experiments show that our method can generate high-quality results and outperforms state-of-the-art methods in both qualitative and quantitative comparisons.

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Deep learning has become the most widely used approach for cardiac image segmentation in recent years. In this paper, we provide a review of over 100 cardiac image segmentation papers using deep learning, which covers common imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US) and major anatomical structures of interest (ventricles, atria and vessels). In addition, a summary of publicly available cardiac image datasets and code repositories are included to provide a base for encouraging reproducible research. Finally, we discuss the challenges and limitations with current deep learning-based approaches (scarcity of labels, model generalizability across different domains, interpretability) and suggest potential directions for future research.

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With the rise and development of deep learning, computer vision has been tremendously transformed and reshaped. As an important research area in computer vision, scene text detection and recognition has been inescapably influenced by this wave of revolution, consequentially entering the era of deep learning. In recent years, the community has witnessed substantial advancements in mindset, approach and performance. This survey is aimed at summarizing and analyzing the major changes and significant progresses of scene text detection and recognition in the deep learning era. Through this article, we devote to: (1) introduce new insights and ideas; (2) highlight recent techniques and benchmarks; (3) look ahead into future trends. Specifically, we will emphasize the dramatic differences brought by deep learning and the grand challenges still remained. We expect that this review paper would serve as a reference book for researchers in this field. Related resources are also collected and compiled in our Github repository: https://github.com/Jyouhou/SceneTextPapers.

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Facial motion retargeting is an important problem in both computer graphics and vision, which involves capturing the performance of a human face and transferring it to another 3D character. Learning 3D morphable model (3DMM) parameters from 2D face images using convolutional neural networks is common in 2D face alignment, 3D face reconstruction etc. However, existing methods either require an additional face detection step before retargeting or use a cascade of separate networks to perform detection followed by retargeting in a sequence. In this paper, we present a single end-to-end network to jointly predict the bounding box locations and 3DMM parameters for multiple faces. First, we design a novel multitask learning framework that learns a disentangled representation of 3DMM parameters for a single face. Then, we leverage the trained single face model to generate ground truth 3DMM parameters for multiple faces to train another network that performs joint face detection and motion retargeting for images with multiple faces. Experimental results show that our joint detection and retargeting network has high face detection accuracy and is robust to extreme expressions and poses while being faster than state-of-the-art methods.

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With the advent of deep neural networks, learning-based approaches for 3D reconstruction have gained popularity. However, unlike for images, in 3D there is no canonical representation which is both computationally and memory efficient yet allows for representing high-resolution geometry of arbitrary topology. Many of the state-of-the-art learning-based 3D reconstruction approaches can hence only represent very coarse 3D geometry or are limited to a restricted domain. In this paper, we propose occupancy networks, a new representation for learning-based 3D reconstruction methods. Occupancy networks implicitly represent the 3D surface as the continuous decision boundary of a deep neural network classifier. In contrast to existing approaches, our representation encodes a description of the 3D output at infinite resolution without excessive memory footprint. We validate that our representation can efficiently encode 3D structure and can be inferred from various kinds of input. Our experiments demonstrate competitive results, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for the challenging tasks of 3D reconstruction from single images, noisy point clouds and coarse discrete voxel grids. We believe that occupancy networks will become a useful tool in a wide variety of learning-based 3D tasks.

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Motion artifacts are a primary source of magnetic resonance (MR) image quality deterioration with strong repercussions on diagnostic performance. Currently, MR motion correction is carried out either prospectively, with the help of motion tracking systems, or retrospectively by mainly utilizing computationally expensive iterative algorithms. In this paper, we utilize a novel adversarial framework, titled MedGAN, for the joint retrospective correction of rigid and non-rigid motion artifacts in different body regions and without the need for a reference image. MedGAN utilizes a unique combination of non-adversarial losses and a novel generator architecture to capture the textures and fine-detailed structures of the desired artifacts-free MR images. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons with other adversarial techniques have illustrated the proposed model's superior performance.

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Although it is well believed for years that modeling relations between objects would help object recognition, there has not been evidence that the idea is working in the deep learning era. All state-of-the-art object detection systems still rely on recognizing object instances individually, without exploiting their relations during learning. This work proposes an object relation module. It processes a set of objects simultaneously through interaction between their appearance feature and geometry, thus allowing modeling of their relations. It is lightweight and in-place. It does not require additional supervision and is easy to embed in existing networks. It is shown effective on improving object recognition and duplicate removal steps in the modern object detection pipeline. It verifies the efficacy of modeling object relations in CNN based detection. It gives rise to the first fully end-to-end object detector.

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Object detection is an important and challenging problem in computer vision. Although the past decade has witnessed major advances in object detection in natural scenes, such successes have been slow to aerial imagery, not only because of the huge variation in the scale, orientation and shape of the object instances on the earth's surface, but also due to the scarcity of well-annotated datasets of objects in aerial scenes. To advance object detection research in Earth Vision, also known as Earth Observation and Remote Sensing, we introduce a large-scale Dataset for Object deTection in Aerial images (DOTA). To this end, we collect $2806$ aerial images from different sensors and platforms. Each image is of the size about 4000-by-4000 pixels and contains objects exhibiting a wide variety of scales, orientations, and shapes. These DOTA images are then annotated by experts in aerial image interpretation using $15$ common object categories. The fully annotated DOTA images contains $188,282$ instances, each of which is labeled by an arbitrary (8 d.o.f.) quadrilateral To build a baseline for object detection in Earth Vision, we evaluate state-of-the-art object detection algorithms on DOTA. Experiments demonstrate that DOTA well represents real Earth Vision applications and are quite challenging.

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Limited capture range, and the requirement to provide high quality initialization for optimization-based 2D/3D image registration methods, can significantly degrade the performance of 3D image reconstruction and motion compensation pipelines. Challenging clinical imaging scenarios, which contain significant subject motion such as fetal in-utero imaging, complicate the 3D image and volume reconstruction process. In this paper we present a learning based image registration method capable of predicting 3D rigid transformations of arbitrarily oriented 2D image slices, with respect to a learned canonical atlas co-ordinate system. Only image slice intensity information is used to perform registration and canonical alignment, no spatial transform initialization is required. To find image transformations we utilize a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture to learn the regression function capable of mapping 2D image slices to a 3D canonical atlas space. We extensively evaluate the effectiveness of our approach quantitatively on simulated Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), fetal brain imagery with synthetic motion and further demonstrate qualitative results on real fetal MRI data where our method is integrated into a full reconstruction and motion compensation pipeline. Our learning based registration achieves an average spatial prediction error of 7 mm on simulated data and produces qualitatively improved reconstructions for heavily moving fetuses with gestational ages of approximately 20 weeks. Our model provides a general and computationally efficient solution to the 2D/3D registration initialization problem and is suitable for real-time scenarios.

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Purpose: MR image reconstruction exploits regularization to compensate for missing k-space data. In this work, we propose to learn the probability distribution of MR image patches with neural networks and use this distribution as prior information constraining images during reconstruction, effectively employing it as regularization. Methods: We use variational autoencoders (VAE) to learn the distribution of MR image patches, which models the high-dimensional distribution by a latent parameter model of lower dimensions in a non-linear fashion. The proposed algorithm uses the learned prior in a Maximum-A-Posteriori estimation formulation. We evaluate the proposed reconstruction method with T1 weighted images and also apply our method on images with white matter lesions. Results: Visual evaluation of the samples showed that the VAE algorithm can approximate the distribution of MR patches well. The proposed reconstruction algorithm using the VAE prior produced high quality reconstructions. The algorithm achieved normalized RMSE, CNR and CN values of 2.77\%, 0.43, 0.11; 4.29\%, 0.43, 0.11, 6.36\%, 0.47, 0.11 and 10.00\%, 0.42, 0.10 for undersampling ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, where it outperformed most of the alternative methods. In the experiments on images with white matter lesions, the method faithfully reconstructed the lesions. Conclusion: We introduced a novel method for MR reconstruction, which takes a new perspective on regularization by using priors learned by neural networks. Results suggest the method compares favorably against the other evaluated methods and can reconstruct lesions as well. Keywords: Reconstruction, MRI, prior probability, MAP estimation, machine learning, variational inference, deep learning

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