We develop a high-order finite element method to solve the advection-diffusion equation on a time-varying domain. The method is based on a characteristic-Galerkin formulation combined with the $k^{\rm th}$-order backward differentiation formula (BDF-$k$) and the fictitious-domain finite element method. Optimal error estimates of the discrete solutions are proven for $2\le k\le 4$ by taking account of the errors from interface-tracking, temporal discretization, and spatial discretization, provided that the $(k+1)^{\rm th}$-order Runge-Kutta scheme is used for interface-tracking. Numerical experiments demonstrate the optimal convergence of the method for $k=3$ and $4$.

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最优化是应用数学的一个分支,主要指在一定条件限制下,选取某种研究方案使目标达到最优的一种方法。最优化问题在当今的军事、工程、管理等领域有着极其广泛的应用。

This paper is concerned with the recovery of (approximate) solutions to parabolic problems from incomplete and possibly inconsistent observational data, given on a time-space cylinder that is a strict subset of the computational domain under consideration. Unlike previous approaches to this and related problems our starting point is a regularized least squares formulation in a continuous infinite-dimensional setting that is based on stable variational time-space formulations of the parabolic PDE. This allows us to derive a priori as well as a posteriori error bounds for the recovered states with respect to a certain reference solution. In these bounds the regularization parameter is disentangled from the underlying discretization. An important ingredient for the derivation of a posteriori bounds is the construction of suitable Fortin operators which allow us to control oscillation errors stemming from the discretization of dual norms. Moreover, the variational framework allows us to contrive preconditioners for the discrete problems whose application can be performed in linear time, and for which the condition numbers of the preconditioned systems are uniformly proportional to that of the regularized continuous problem. In particular, we provide suitable stopping criteria for the iterative solvers based on the a posteriori error bounds. The presented numerical experiments quantify the theoretical findings and demonstrate the performance of the numerical scheme in relation with the underlying discretization and regularization.

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An implicit Euler finite-volume scheme for general cross-diffusion systems with volume-filling constraints is proposed and analyzed. The diffusion matrix may be nonsymmetric and not positive semidefinite, but the diffusion system is assumed to possess a formal gradient-flow structure that yields $L^\infty$ bounds on the continuous level. Examples include the Maxwell-Stefan systems for gas mixtures, tumor-growth models, and systems for the fabrication of thin-film solar cells. The proposed numerical scheme preserves the structure of the continuous equations, namely the entropy dissipation inequality as well as the nonnegativity of the concentrations and the volume-filling constraints. The discrete entropy structure is a consequence of a new vector-valued discrete chain rule. The existence of discrete solutions, their positivity, and the convergence of the scheme is proved. The numerical scheme is implemented for a one-dimensional Maxwell-Stefan model and a two-dimensional thin-film solar cell system. It is illustrated that the convergence rate in space is of order two and the discrete relative entropy decays exponentially.

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High-order numerical methods for solving elliptic equations over arbitrary domains typically require specialized machinery, such as high-quality conforming grids for finite elements method, and quadrature rules for boundary integral methods. These tools make it difficult to apply these techniques to higher dimensions. In contrast, fixed Cartesian grid methods, such as the immersed boundary (IB) method, are easy to apply and generalize, but typically are low-order accurate. In this study, we introduce the Smooth Forcing Extension (SFE) method, a fixed Cartesian grid technique that builds on the insights of the IB method, and allows one to obtain arbitrary orders of accuracy. Our approach relies on a novel Fourier continuation method to compute extensions of the inhomogeneous terms to any desired regularity. This is combined with the highly accurate Non-Uniform Fast Fourier Transform for interpolation operations to yield a fast and robust method. Numerical tests confirm that the technique performs precisely as expected on one-dimensional test problems. In higher dimensions, the performance is even better, in some cases yielding sub-geometric convergence. We also demonstrate how this technique can be applied to solving parabolic problems and for computing the eigenvalues of elliptic operators on general domains, in the process illustrating its stability and amenability to generalization.

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Applications for kinetic equations such as optimal design and inverse problems often involve finding unknown parameters through gradient-based optimization algorithms. Based on the adjoint-state method, we derive two different frameworks for approximating the gradient of an objective functional constrained by the nonlinear Boltzmann equation. While the forward problem can be solved by the DSMC method, it is difficult to efficiently solve the high-dimensional continuous adjoint equation obtained by the "optimize-then-discretize" approach. This challenge motivates us to propose an adjoint DSMC method following the "discretize-then-optimize" approach for Boltzmann-constrained optimization. We also analyze the properties of the two frameworks and their connections. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate their accuracy and efficiency.

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We develop a conservative cut finite element method for an elliptic coupled bulk-interface problem. The method is based on a discontinuous Galerkin framework where stabilization is added in such a way that we retain conservation on macro elements containing one element with a large intersection with the domain and possibly a number of elements with small intersections. We derive error estimates and present confirming numerical results

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In this work, we determine the full expression of the local truncation error of hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs) on a uniform mesh. If we are employing a stable numerical scheme and the global solution error is of the same order of accuracy as the global truncation error, we make the following observations in the asymptotic regime, where the truncation error is dominated by the powers of $\Delta x$ and $\Delta t$ rather than their coefficients. Assuming that we reach the asymptotic regime before the machine precision error takes over, (a) the order of convergence of stable numerical solutions of hyperbolic PDEs at constant ratio of $\Delta t$ to $\Delta x$ is governed by the minimum of the orders of the spatial and temporal discretizations, and (b) convergence cannot even be guaranteed under only spatial or temporal refinement. We have tested our theory against numerical methods employing Method of Lines and not against ones that treat space and time together, and we have not taken into consideration the reduction in the spatial and temporal orders of accuracy resulting from slope-limiting monotonicity-preserving strategies commonly applied to finite volume methods. Otherwise, our theory applies to any hyperbolic PDE, be it linear or non-linear, and employing finite difference, finite volume, or finite element discretization in space, and advanced in time with a predictor-corrector, multistep, or a deferred correction method. If the PDE is reduced to an ordinary differential equation (ODE) by specifying the spatial gradients of the dependent variable and the coefficients and the source terms to be zero, then the standard local truncation error of the ODE is recovered. We perform the analysis with generic and specific hyperbolic PDEs using the symbolic algebra package SymPy, and conduct a number of numerical experiments to demonstrate our theoretical findings.

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In this paper, we consider a second-order scalar auxiliary variable (SAV) Fourier spectral method to solve the nonlinear fractional generalized wave equation. Unconditional energy conservation or dissipation properties of the fully discrete scheme are first established. Next, we utilize the temporal-spatial error splitting argument to obtain unconditional optimal error estimate of the fully discrete scheme, which overcomes time-step restrictions caused by strongly nonlinear system, or the restrictions that the nonlinear term needs to satisfy the assumption of global Lipschitz condition in all previous works for fractional undamped or damped wave equations. Finally, some numerical experiments are presented to confirm our theoretical analysis.

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This paper is devoted to a rigorous mathematical foundation for the convergence properties of the strain-smoothed element (SSE) method. The SSE method has demonstrated improved convergence behaviors compared to other strain smoothing methods through various numerical examples; however, there has been no theoretical evidence for the convergence behavior. A unique feature of the SSE method is the construction of smoothed strain fields within elements by fully unifying the strains of adjacent elements. Owing to this feature, convergence analysis is required, which is different from other existing strain smoothing methods. In this paper, we first propose a novel mixed variational principle wherein the SSE method can be interpreted as a Galerkin approximation of that. The proposed variational principle is a generalization of the well-known Hu--Washizu variational principle; thus, various existing strain smoothing methods can be expressed in terms of the proposed variational principle. With a unified view of the SSE method and other existing methods through the proposed variational principle, we analyze the convergence behavior of the SSE method and explain the reason for the improved performance compared to other methods. We also present numerical experiments that support our theoretical results.

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We present a novel class of high-order space-time finite element schemes for the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations. We prove that our schemes are mass conservative, positivity preserving, and unconditionally energy stable for any order of approximation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first class of (arbitrarily) high-order accurate schemes for the PNP equations that simultaneously achieve all these three properties. This is accomplished via (1) using finite elements to directly approximate the so-called entropy variable instead of the density variable, and (2) using a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization in time. The entropy variable formulation, which was originally developed by Metti et al. [17] under the name of a log-density formulation, guarantees both positivity of densities and a continuous-in-time energy stability result. The DG in time discretization further ensures an unconditional energy stability in the fully discrete level for any approximation order, where the lowest order case is exactly the backward Euler discretization and in this case we recover the method of Metti et al. [17].

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A new implicit-explicit local differential transform method (IELDTM) is derived here for time integration of the nonlinear advection-diffusion processes represented by (2+1)-dimensional Burgers equation. The IELDTM is adaptively constructed as stability preserved and high order time integrator for spatially discretized Burgers equation. For spatial discretization of the model equation, the Chebyshev spectral collocation method (ChCM) is utilized. A robust stability analysis and global error analysis of the IELDTM are presented with respect to the direction parameter \theta. With the help of the global error analysis, adaptivity equations are derived to minimize the computational costs of the algorithms. The produced method is shown to eliminate the accuracy disadvantage of the classical \theta-method and the stability disadvantages of the existing DTM-based methods. Two examples of the Burgers equation in one and two dimensions have been solved via the ChCM-IELDTM hybridization, and the produced results are compared with the literature. The present time integrator has been proven to produce more accurate numerical results than the MATLAB solvers, ode45 and ode15s.

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