Compared with single-label image classification, multi-label image classification is more practical and challenging. Some recent studies attempted to leverage the semantic information of categories for improving multi-label image classification performance. However, these semantic-based methods only take semantic information as type of complements for visual representation without further exploitation. In this paper, we present a innovative path towards the solution of the multi-label image classification which considers it as a dictionary learning task. A novel end-to-end model named Deep Semantic Dictionary Learning (DSDL) is designed. In DSDL, an auto-encoder is applied to generate the semantic dictionary from class-level semantics and then such dictionary is utilized for representing the visual features extracted by Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with label embeddings. The DSDL provides a simple but elegant way to exploit and reconcile the label, semantic and visual spaces simultaneously via conducting the dictionary learning among them. Moreover, inspired by iterative optimization of traditional dictionary learning, we further devise a novel training strategy named Alternately Parameters Update Strategy (APUS) for optimizing DSDL, which alteratively optimizes the representation coefficients and the semantic dictionary in forward and backward propagation. Extensive experimental results on three popular benchmarks demonstrate that our method achieves promising performances in comparison with the state-of-the-arts. Our codes and models are available at https://github.com/ZFT-CQU/DSDL.

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稀疏表达的效果好坏和用的字典有着密切的关系。字典分两类,一种是预先给定的分析字典,比如小波基、DCT等,另一种则是针对特定数据集学习出特定的字典。这种学出来的字典能大大提升在特定数据集的效果。

New categories can be discovered by transforming semantic features into synthesized visual features without corresponding training samples in zero-shot image classification. Although significant progress has been made in generating high-quality synthesized visual features using generative adversarial networks, guaranteeing semantic consistency between the semantic features and visual features remains very challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel zero-shot learning approach, GAN-CST, based on class knowledge to visual feature learning to tackle the problem. The approach consists of three parts, class knowledge overlay, semi-supervised learning and triplet loss. It applies class knowledge overlay (CKO) to obtain knowledge not only from the corresponding class but also from other classes that have the knowledge overlay. It ensures that the knowledge-to-visual learning process has adequate information to generate synthesized visual features. The approach also applies a semi-supervised learning process to re-train knowledge-to-visual model. It contributes to reinforcing synthesized visual features generation as well as new category prediction. We tabulate results on a number of benchmark datasets demonstrating that the proposed model delivers superior performance over state-of-the-art approaches.

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Many tasks in natural language processing can be viewed as multi-label classification problems. However, most of the existing models are trained with the standard cross-entropy loss function and use a fixed prediction policy (e.g., a threshold of 0.5) for all the labels, which completely ignores the complexity and dependencies among different labels. In this paper, we propose a meta-learning method to capture these complex label dependencies. More specifically, our method utilizes a meta-learner to jointly learn the training policies and prediction policies for different labels. The training policies are then used to train the classifier with the cross-entropy loss function, and the prediction policies are further implemented for prediction. Experimental results on fine-grained entity typing and text classification demonstrate that our proposed method can obtain more accurate multi-label classification results.

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The task of multi-label learning is to predict a set of relevant labels for the unseen instance. Traditional multi-label learning algorithms treat each class label as a logical indicator of whether the corresponding label is relevant or irrelevant to the instance, i.e., +1 represents relevant to the instance and -1 represents irrelevant to the instance. Such label represented by -1 or +1 is called logical label. Logical label cannot reflect different label importance. However, for real-world multi-label learning problems, the importance of each possible label is generally different. For the real applications, it is difficult to obtain the label importance information directly. Thus we need a method to reconstruct the essential label importance from the logical multilabel data. To solve this problem, we assume that each multi-label instance is described by a vector of latent real-valued labels, which can reflect the importance of the corresponding labels. Such label is called numerical label. The process of reconstructing the numerical labels from the logical multi-label data via utilizing the logical label information and the topological structure in the feature space is called Label Enhancement. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-label learning framework called LEMLL, i.e., Label Enhanced Multi-Label Learning, which incorporates regression of the numerical labels and label enhancement into a unified framework. Extensive comparative studies validate that the performance of multi-label learning can be improved significantly with label enhancement and LEMLL can effectively reconstruct latent label importance information from logical multi-label data.

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In information retrieval (IR) and related tasks, term weighting approaches typically consider the frequency of the term in the document and in the collection in order to compute a score reflecting the importance of the term for the document. In tasks characterized by the presence of training data (such as text classification) it seems logical that the term weighting function should take into account the distribution (as estimated from training data) of the term across the classes of interest. Although `supervised term weighting' approaches that use this intuition have been described before, they have failed to show consistent improvements. In this article we analyse the possible reasons for this failure, and call consolidated assumptions into question. Following this criticism we propose a novel supervised term weighting approach that, instead of relying on any predefined formula, learns a term weighting function optimised on the training set of interest; we dub this approach \emph{Learning to Weight} (LTW). The experiments that we run on several well-known benchmarks, and using different learning methods, show that our method outperforms previous term weighting approaches in text classification.

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Time Series Classification (TSC) is an important and challenging problem in data mining. With the increase of time series data availability, hundreds of TSC algorithms have been proposed. Among these methods, only a few have considered Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) to perform this task. This is surprising as deep learning has seen very successful applications in the last years. DNNs have indeed revolutionized the field of computer vision especially with the advent of novel deeper architectures such as Residual and Convolutional Neural Networks. Apart from images, sequential data such as text and audio can also be processed with DNNs to reach state-of-the-art performance for document classification and speech recognition. In this article, we study the current state-of-the-art performance of deep learning algorithms for TSC by presenting an empirical study of the most recent DNN architectures for TSC. We give an overview of the most successful deep learning applications in various time series domains under a unified taxonomy of DNNs for TSC. We also provide an open source deep learning framework to the TSC community where we implemented each of the compared approaches and evaluated them on a univariate TSC benchmark (the UCR/UEA archive) and 12 multivariate time series datasets. By training 8,730 deep learning models on 97 time series datasets, we propose the most exhaustive study of DNNs for TSC to date.

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Recently, label consistent k-svd(LC-KSVD) algorithm has been successfully applied in image classification. The objective function of LC-KSVD is consisted of reconstruction error, classification error and discriminative sparse codes error with l0-norm sparse regularization term. The l0-norm, however, leads to NP-hard issue. Despite some methods such as orthogonal matching pursuit can help solve this problem to some extent, it is quite difficult to find the optimum sparse solution. To overcome this limitation, we propose a label embedded dictionary learning(LEDL) method to utilise the $\ell_1$-norm as the sparse regularization term so that we can avoid the hard-to-optimize problem by solving the convex optimization problem. Alternating direction method of multipliers and blockwise coordinate descent algorithm are then used to optimize the corresponding objective function. Extensive experimental results on six benchmark datasets illustrate that the proposed algorithm has achieved superior performance compared to some conventional classification algorithms.

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In existing visual representation learning tasks, deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are often trained on images annotated with single tags, such as ImageNet. However, a single tag cannot describe all important contents of one image, and some useful visual information may be wasted during training. In this work, we propose to train CNNs from images annotated with multiple tags, to enhance the quality of visual representation of the trained CNN model. To this end, we build a large-scale multi-label image database with 18M images and 11K categories, dubbed Tencent ML-Images. We efficiently train the ResNet-101 model with multi-label outputs on Tencent ML-Images, taking 90 hours for 60 epochs, based on a large-scale distributed deep learning framework,i.e.,TFplus. The good quality of the visual representation of the Tencent ML-Images checkpoint is verified through three transfer learning tasks, including single-label image classification on ImageNet and Caltech-256, object detection on PASCAL VOC 2007, and semantic segmentation on PASCAL VOC 2012. The Tencent ML-Images database, the checkpoints of ResNet-101, and all the training codehave been released at https://github.com/Tencent/tencent-ml-images. It is expected to promote other vision tasks in the research and industry community.

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We propose a novel locally adaptive learning estimator for enhancing the inter- and intra- discriminative capabilities of Deep Neural Networks, which can be used as improved loss layer for semantic image segmentation tasks. Most loss layers compute pixel-wise cost between feature maps and ground truths, ignoring spatial layouts and interactions between neighboring pixels with same object category, and thus networks cannot be effectively sensitive to intra-class connections. Stride by stride, our method firstly conducts adaptive pooling filter operating over predicted feature maps, aiming to merge predicted distributions over a small group of neighboring pixels with same category, and then it computes cost between the merged distribution vector and their category label. Such design can make groups of neighboring predictions from same category involved into estimations on predicting correctness with respect to their category, and hence train networks to be more sensitive to regional connections between adjacent pixels based on their categories. In the experiments on Pascal VOC 2012 segmentation datasets, the consistently improved results show that our proposed approach achieves better segmentation masks against previous counterparts.

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One of the most common tasks in medical imaging is semantic segmentation. Achieving this segmentation automatically has been an active area of research, but the task has been proven very challenging due to the large variation of anatomy across different patients. However, recent advances in deep learning have made it possible to significantly improve the performance of image recognition and semantic segmentation methods in the field of computer vision. Due to the data driven approaches of hierarchical feature learning in deep learning frameworks, these advances can be translated to medical images without much difficulty. Several variations of deep convolutional neural networks have been successfully applied to medical images. Especially fully convolutional architectures have been proven efficient for segmentation of 3D medical images. In this article, we describe how to build a 3D fully convolutional network (FCN) that can process 3D images in order to produce automatic semantic segmentations. The model is trained and evaluated on a clinical computed tomography (CT) dataset and shows state-of-the-art performance in multi-organ segmentation.

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Image segmentation is considered to be one of the critical tasks in hyperspectral remote sensing image processing. Recently, convolutional neural network (CNN) has established itself as a powerful model in segmentation and classification by demonstrating excellent performances. The use of a graphical model such as a conditional random field (CRF) contributes further in capturing contextual information and thus improving the segmentation performance. In this paper, we propose a method to segment hyperspectral images by considering both spectral and spatial information via a combined framework consisting of CNN and CRF. We use multiple spectral cubes to learn deep features using CNN, and then formulate deep CRF with CNN-based unary and pairwise potential functions to effectively extract the semantic correlations between patches consisting of three-dimensional data cubes. Effective piecewise training is applied in order to avoid the computationally expensive iterative CRF inference. Furthermore, we introduce a deep deconvolution network that improves the segmentation masks. We also introduce a new dataset and experimented our proposed method on it along with several widely adopted benchmark datasets to evaluate the effectiveness of our method. By comparing our results with those from several state-of-the-art models, we show the promising potential of our method.

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