In two-phase image segmentation, convex relaxation has allowed global minimisers to be computed for a variety of data fitting terms. Many efficient approaches exist to compute a solution quickly. However, we consider whether the nature of the data fitting in this formulation allows for reasonable assumptions to be made about the solution that can improve the computational performance further. In particular, we employ a well known dual formulation of this problem and solve the corresponding equations in a restricted domain. We present experimental results that explore the dependence of the solution on this restriction and quantify imrovements in the computational performance. This approach can be extended to analogous methods simply and could provide an efficient alternative for problems of this type.

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图像分割就是把图像分成若干个特定的、具有独特性质的区域并提出感兴趣目标的技术和过程。它是由图像处理到图像分析的关键步骤。 所谓图像分割指的是根据灰度、颜色、纹理和形状等特征把图像划分成若干互不交迭的区域,并使这些特征在同一区域内呈现出相似性,而在不同区域间呈现出明显的差异性。

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In this work, we study the problem of training deep networks for semantic image segmentation using only a fraction of annotated images, which may significantly reduce human annotation efforts. Particularly, we propose a strategy that exploits the unpaired image style transfer capabilities of CycleGAN in semi-supervised segmentation. Unlike recent works using adversarial learning for semi-supervised segmentation, we enforce cycle consistency to learn a bidirectional mapping between unpaired images and segmentation masks. This adds an unsupervised regularization effect that boosts the segmentation performance when annotated data is limited. Experiments on three different public segmentation benchmarks (PASCAL VOC 2012, Cityscapes and ACDC) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed model achieves 2-4% of improvement with respect to the baseline and outperforms recent approaches for this task, particularly in low labeled data regime.

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Deep neural network architectures have traditionally been designed and explored with human expertise in a long-lasting trial-and-error process. This process requires huge amount of time, expertise, and resources. To address this tedious problem, we propose a novel algorithm to optimally find hyperparameters of a deep network architecture automatically. We specifically focus on designing neural architectures for medical image segmentation task. Our proposed method is based on a policy gradient reinforcement learning for which the reward function is assigned a segmentation evaluation utility (i.e., dice index). We show the efficacy of the proposed method with its low computational cost in comparison with the state-of-the-art medical image segmentation networks. We also present a new architecture design, a densely connected encoder-decoder CNN, as a strong baseline architecture to apply the proposed hyperparameter search algorithm. We apply the proposed algorithm to each layer of the baseline architectures. As an application, we train the proposed system on cine cardiac MR images from Automated Cardiac Diagnosis Challenge (ACDC) MICCAI 2017. Starting from a baseline segmentation architecture, the resulting network architecture obtains the state-of-the-art results in accuracy without performing any trial-and-error based architecture design approaches or close supervision of the hyperparameters changes.

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In this paper, we focus on three problems in deep learning based medical image segmentation. Firstly, U-net, as a popular model for medical image segmentation, is difficult to train when convolutional layers increase even though a deeper network usually has a better generalization ability because of more learnable parameters. Secondly, the exponential ReLU (ELU), as an alternative of ReLU, is not much different from ReLU when the network of interest gets deep. Thirdly, the Dice loss, as one of the pervasive loss functions for medical image segmentation, is not effective when the prediction is close to ground truth and will cause oscillation during training. To address the aforementioned three problems, we propose and validate a deeper network that can fit medical image datasets that are usually small in the sample size. Meanwhile, we propose a new loss function to accelerate the learning process and a combination of different activation functions to improve the network performance. Our experimental results suggest that our network is comparable or superior to state-of-the-art methods.

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We propose a geometric convexity shape prior preservation method for variational level set based image segmentation methods. Our method is built upon the fact that the level set of a convex signed distanced function must be convex. This property enables us to transfer a complicated geometrical convexity prior into a simple inequality constraint on the function. An active set based Gauss-Seidel iteration is used to handle this constrained minimization problem to get an efficient algorithm. We apply our method to region and edge based level set segmentation models including Chan-Vese (CV) model with guarantee that the segmented region will be convex. Experimental results show the effectiveness and quality of the proposed model and algorithm.

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In this work, we propose a special cascade network for image segmentation, which is based on the U-Net networks as building blocks and the idea of the iterative refinement. The model was mainly applied to achieve higher recognition quality for the task of finding borders of the optic disc and cup, which are relevant to the presence of glaucoma. Compared to a single U-Net and the state-of-the-art methods for the investigated tasks, very high segmentation quality has been achieved without a need for increasing the volume of datasets. Our experiments include comparison with the best-known methods on publicly available databases DRIONS-DB, RIM-ONE v.3, DRISHTI-GS, and evaluation on a private data set collected in collaboration with University of California San Francisco Medical School. The analysis of the architecture details is presented, and it is argued that the model can be employed for a broad scope of image segmentation problems of similar nature.

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The Normalized Cut (NCut) objective function, widely used in data clustering and image segmentation, quantifies the cost of graph partitioning in a way that biases clusters or segments that are balanced towards having lower values than unbalanced partitionings. However, this bias is so strong that it avoids any singleton partitions, even when vertices are very weakly connected to the rest of the graph. Motivated by the B\"uhler-Hein family of balanced cut costs, we propose the family of Compassionately Conservative Balanced (CCB) Cut costs, which are indexed by a parameter that can be used to strike a compromise between the desire to avoid too many singleton partitions and the notion that all partitions should be balanced. We show that CCB-Cut minimization can be relaxed into an orthogonally constrained $\ell_{\tau}$-minimization problem that coincides with the problem of computing Piecewise Flat Embeddings (PFE) for one particular index value, and we present an algorithm for solving the relaxed problem by iteratively minimizing a sequence of reweighted Rayleigh quotients (IRRQ). Using images from the BSDS500 database, we show that image segmentation based on CCB-Cut minimization provides better accuracy with respect to ground truth and greater variability in region size than NCut-based image segmentation.

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One of the most common tasks in medical imaging is semantic segmentation. Achieving this segmentation automatically has been an active area of research, but the task has been proven very challenging due to the large variation of anatomy across different patients. However, recent advances in deep learning have made it possible to significantly improve the performance of image recognition and semantic segmentation methods in the field of computer vision. Due to the data driven approaches of hierarchical feature learning in deep learning frameworks, these advances can be translated to medical images without much difficulty. Several variations of deep convolutional neural networks have been successfully applied to medical images. Especially fully convolutional architectures have been proven efficient for segmentation of 3D medical images. In this article, we describe how to build a 3D fully convolutional network (FCN) that can process 3D images in order to produce automatic semantic segmentations. The model is trained and evaluated on a clinical computed tomography (CT) dataset and shows state-of-the-art performance in multi-organ segmentation.

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This work presents a region-growing image segmentation approach based on superpixel decomposition. From an initial contour-constrained over-segmentation of the input image, the image segmentation is achieved by iteratively merging similar superpixels into regions. This approach raises two key issues: (1) how to compute the similarity between superpixels in order to perform accurate merging and (2) in which order those superpixels must be merged together. In this perspective, we firstly introduce a robust adaptive multi-scale superpixel similarity in which region comparisons are made both at content and common border level. Secondly, we propose a global merging strategy to efficiently guide the region merging process. Such strategy uses an adpative merging criterion to ensure that best region aggregations are given highest priorities. This allows to reach a final segmentation into consistent regions with strong boundary adherence. We perform experiments on the BSDS500 image dataset to highlight to which extent our method compares favorably against other well-known image segmentation algorithms. The obtained results demonstrate the promising potential of the proposed approach.

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Methods that align distributions by minimizing an adversarial distance between them have recently achieved impressive results. However, these approaches are difficult to optimize with gradient descent and they often do not converge well without careful hyperparameter tuning and proper initialization. We investigate whether turning the adversarial min-max problem into an optimization problem by replacing the maximization part with its dual improves the quality of the resulting alignment and explore its connections to Maximum Mean Discrepancy. Our empirical results suggest that using the dual formulation for the restricted family of linear discriminators results in a more stable convergence to a desirable solution when compared with the performance of a primal min-max GAN-like objective and an MMD objective under the same restrictions. We test our hypothesis on the problem of aligning two synthetic point clouds on a plane and on a real-image domain adaptation problem on digits. In both cases, the dual formulation yields an iterative procedure that gives more stable and monotonic improvement over time.

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A novel multi-atlas based image segmentation method is proposed by integrating a semi-supervised label propagation method and a supervised random forests method in a pattern recognition based label fusion framework. The semi-supervised label propagation method takes into consideration local and global image appearance of images to be segmented and segments the images by propagating reliable segmentation results obtained by the supervised random forests method. Particularly, the random forests method is used to train a regression model based on image patches of atlas images for each voxel of the images to be segmented. The regression model is used to obtain reliable segmentation results to guide the label propagation for the segmentation. The proposed method has been compared with state-of-the-art multi-atlas based image segmentation methods for segmenting the hippocampus in MR images. The experiment results have demonstrated that our method obtained superior segmentation performance.

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