Deep ConvNets have shown great performance for single-label image classification (e.g. ImageNet), but it is necessary to move beyond the single-label classification task because pictures of everyday life are inherently multi-label. Multi-label classification is a more difficult task than single-label classification because both the input images and output label spaces are more complex. Furthermore, collecting clean multi-label annotations is more difficult to scale-up than single-label annotations. To reduce the annotation cost, we propose to train a model with partial labels i.e. only some labels are known per image. We first empirically compare different labeling strategies to show the potential for using partial labels on multi-label datasets. Then to learn with partial labels, we introduce a new classification loss that exploits the proportion of known labels per example. Our approach allows the use of the same training settings as when learning with all the annotations. We further explore several curriculum learning based strategies to predict missing labels. Experiments are performed on three large-scale multi-label datasets: MS COCO, NUS-WIDE and Open Images.

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Performance:International Symposium on Computer Performance Modeling, Measurements and Evaluation。 Explanation:计算机性能建模、测量和评估国际研讨会。 Publisher:ACM。 SIT:http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/performance/

Applying artificial intelligence techniques in medical imaging is one of the most promising areas in medicine. However, most of the recent success in this area highly relies on large amounts of carefully annotated data, whereas annotating medical images is a costly process. In this paper, we propose a novel method, called FocalMix, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to leverage recent advances in semi-supervised learning (SSL) for 3D medical image detection. We conducted extensive experiments on two widely used datasets for lung nodule detection, LUNA16 and NLST. Results show that our proposed SSL methods can achieve a substantial improvement of up to 17.3% over state-of-the-art supervised learning approaches with 400 unlabeled CT scans.

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Many tasks in natural language processing can be viewed as multi-label classification problems. However, most of the existing models are trained with the standard cross-entropy loss function and use a fixed prediction policy (e.g., a threshold of 0.5) for all the labels, which completely ignores the complexity and dependencies among different labels. In this paper, we propose a meta-learning method to capture these complex label dependencies. More specifically, our method utilizes a meta-learner to jointly learn the training policies and prediction policies for different labels. The training policies are then used to train the classifier with the cross-entropy loss function, and the prediction policies are further implemented for prediction. Experimental results on fine-grained entity typing and text classification demonstrate that our proposed method can obtain more accurate multi-label classification results.

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Sufficient supervised information is crucial for any machine learning models to boost performance. However, labeling data is expensive and sometimes difficult to obtain. Active learning is an approach to acquire annotations for data from a human oracle by selecting informative samples with a high probability to enhance performance. In recent emerging studies, a generative adversarial network (GAN) has been integrated with active learning to generate good candidates to be presented to the oracle. In this paper, we propose a novel model that is able to obtain labels for data in a cheaper manner without the need to query an oracle. In the model, a novel reward for each sample is devised to measure the degree of uncertainty, which is obtained from a classifier trained with existing labeled data. This reward is used to guide a conditional GAN to generate informative samples with a higher probability for a certain label. With extensive evaluations, we have confirmed the effectiveness of the model, showing that the generated samples are capable of improving the classification performance in popular image classification tasks.

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In information retrieval (IR) and related tasks, term weighting approaches typically consider the frequency of the term in the document and in the collection in order to compute a score reflecting the importance of the term for the document. In tasks characterized by the presence of training data (such as text classification) it seems logical that the term weighting function should take into account the distribution (as estimated from training data) of the term across the classes of interest. Although `supervised term weighting' approaches that use this intuition have been described before, they have failed to show consistent improvements. In this article we analyse the possible reasons for this failure, and call consolidated assumptions into question. Following this criticism we propose a novel supervised term weighting approach that, instead of relying on any predefined formula, learns a term weighting function optimised on the training set of interest; we dub this approach \emph{Learning to Weight} (LTW). The experiments that we run on several well-known benchmarks, and using different learning methods, show that our method outperforms previous term weighting approaches in text classification.

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Recently, label consistent k-svd(LC-KSVD) algorithm has been successfully applied in image classification. The objective function of LC-KSVD is consisted of reconstruction error, classification error and discriminative sparse codes error with l0-norm sparse regularization term. The l0-norm, however, leads to NP-hard issue. Despite some methods such as orthogonal matching pursuit can help solve this problem to some extent, it is quite difficult to find the optimum sparse solution. To overcome this limitation, we propose a label embedded dictionary learning(LEDL) method to utilise the $\ell_1$-norm as the sparse regularization term so that we can avoid the hard-to-optimize problem by solving the convex optimization problem. Alternating direction method of multipliers and blockwise coordinate descent algorithm are then used to optimize the corresponding objective function. Extensive experimental results on six benchmark datasets illustrate that the proposed algorithm has achieved superior performance compared to some conventional classification algorithms.

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Multi-label classification aims to classify instances with discrete non-exclusive labels. Most approaches on multi-label classification focus on effective adaptation or transformation of existing binary and multi-class learning approaches but fail in modelling the joint probability of labels or do not preserve generalization abilities for unseen label combinations. To address these issues we propose a new multi-label classification scheme, LNEMLC - Label Network Embedding for Multi-Label Classification, that embeds the label network and uses it to extend input space in learning and inference of any base multi-label classifier. The approach allows capturing of labels' joint probability at low computational complexity providing results comparable to the best methods reported in the literature. We demonstrate how the method reveals statistically significant improvements over the simple kNN baseline classifier. We also provide hints for selecting the robust configuration that works satisfactorily across data domains.

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In this paper, we propose a novel deep learning architecture for multi-label zero-shot learning (ML-ZSL), which is able to predict multiple unseen class labels for each input instance. Inspired by the way humans utilize semantic knowledge between objects of interests, we propose a framework that incorporates knowledge graphs for describing the relationships between multiple labels. Our model learns an information propagation mechanism from the semantic label space, which can be applied to model the interdependencies between seen and unseen class labels. With such investigation of structured knowledge graphs for visual reasoning, we show that our model can be applied for solving multi-label classification and ML-ZSL tasks. Compared to state-of-the-art approaches, comparable or improved performances can be achieved by our method.

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This paper tackles the problem of video object segmentation, given some user annotation which indicates the object of interest. The problem is formulated as pixel-wise retrieval in a learned embedding space: we embed pixels of the same object instance into the vicinity of each other, using a fully convolutional network trained by a modified triplet loss as the embedding model. Then the annotated pixels are set as reference and the rest of the pixels are classified using a nearest-neighbor approach. The proposed method supports different kinds of user input such as segmentation mask in the first frame (semi-supervised scenario), or a sparse set of clicked points (interactive scenario). In the semi-supervised scenario, we achieve results competitive with the state of the art but at a fraction of computation cost (275 milliseconds per frame). In the interactive scenario where the user is able to refine their input iteratively, the proposed method provides instant response to each input, and reaches comparable quality to competing methods with much less interaction.

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In this paper, a novel video classification methodology is presented that aims to recognize different categories of third-person videos efficiently. The idea is to keep track of motion in videos by following optical flow elements over time. To classify the resulted motion time series efficiently, the idea is letting the machine to learn temporal features along the time dimension. This is done by training a multi-channel one dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (1D-CNN). Since CNNs represent the input data hierarchically, high level features are obtained by further processing of features in lower level layers. As a result, in the case of time series, long-term temporal features are extracted from short-term ones. Besides, the superiority of the proposed method over most of the deep-learning based approaches is that we only try to learn representative temporal features along the time dimension. This reduces the number of learning parameters significantly which results in trainability of our method on even smaller datasets. It is illustrated that the proposed method could reach state-of-the-art results on two public datasets UCF11 and jHMDB with the aid of a more efficient feature vector representation.

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Labeled Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LLDA) is an extension of the standard unsupervised Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) algorithm, to address multi-label learning tasks. Previous work has shown it to perform in par with other state-of-the-art multi-label methods. Nonetheless, with increasing label sets sizes LLDA encounters scalability issues. In this work, we introduce Subset LLDA, a simple variant of the standard LLDA algorithm, that not only can effectively scale up to problems with hundreds of thousands of labels but also improves over the LLDA state-of-the-art. We conduct extensive experiments on eight data sets, with label sets sizes ranging from hundreds to hundreds of thousands, comparing our proposed algorithm with the previously proposed LLDA algorithms (Prior--LDA, Dep--LDA), as well as the state of the art in extreme multi-label classification. The results show a steady advantage of our method over the other LLDA algorithms and competitive results compared to the extreme multi-label classification algorithms.

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