Generalization, i.e., the ability to adapt to novel scenarios, is the hallmark of human intelligence. While we have systems that excel at recognizing objects, cleaning floors, playing complex games and occasionally beating humans, they are incredibly specific in that they only perform the tasks they are trained for and are miserable at generalization. Could optimizing towards fixed external goals be hindering the generalization instead of aiding it? In this thesis, we present our initial efforts toward endowing artificial agents with a human-like ability to generalize in diverse scenarios. The main insight is to first allow the agent to learn general-purpose skills in a completely self-supervised manner, without optimizing for any external goal.

To be able to learn on its own, the claim is that an artificial agent must be embodied in the world, develop an understanding of its sensory input (e.g., image stream) and simultaneously learn to map this understanding to its motor outputs (e.g., torques) in an unsupervised manner. All these considerations lead to two fundamental questions: how to learn rich representations of the world similar to what humans learn?; and how to re-use such a representation of past knowledge to incrementally adapt and learn more about the world similar to how humans do? We believe prediction is the key to this answer. We propose generic mechanisms that employ prediction as a supervisory signal in allowing the agents to learn sensory representations as well as motor control. These two abilities equip an embodied agent with a basic set of general-purpose skills which are then later repurposed to perform complex tasks.

We discuss how this framework can be instantiated to develop curiosity-driven agents (virtual as well as real) that can learn to play games, learn to walk, and learn to perform real-world object manipulation without any rewards or supervision. These self-supervised robotic agents, after exploring the environment, can generalize to find their way in office environments, tie knots using rope, rearrange object configuration, and compose their skills in a modular fashion.

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用已知某种或某些特性的样本作为训练集,以建立一个数学模型(如模式识别中的判别模型,人工神经网络法中的权重模型等),再用已建立的模型来预测未知样本,此种方法称为有监督学习。是最常见的机器学习方法。

Continual learning aims to improve the ability of modern learning systems to deal with non-stationary distributions, typically by attempting to learn a series of tasks sequentially. Prior art in the field has largely considered supervised or reinforcement learning tasks, and often assumes full knowledge of task labels and boundaries. In this work, we propose an approach (CURL) to tackle a more general problem that we will refer to as unsupervised continual learning. The focus is on learning representations without any knowledge about task identity, and we explore scenarios when there are abrupt changes between tasks, smooth transitions from one task to another, or even when the data is shuffled. The proposed approach performs task inference directly within the model, is able to dynamically expand to capture new concepts over its lifetime, and incorporates additional rehearsal-based techniques to deal with catastrophic forgetting. We demonstrate the efficacy of CURL in an unsupervised learning setting with MNIST and Omniglot, where the lack of labels ensures no information is leaked about the task. Further, we demonstrate strong performance compared to prior art in an i.i.d setting, or when adapting the technique to supervised tasks such as incremental class learning.

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The tutorial is written for those who would like an introduction to reinforcement learning (RL). The aim is to provide an intuitive presentation of the ideas rather than concentrate on the deeper mathematics underlying the topic. RL is generally used to solve the so-called Markov decision problem (MDP). In other words, the problem that you are attempting to solve with RL should be an MDP or its variant. The theory of RL relies on dynamic programming (DP) and artificial intelligence (AI). We will begin with a quick description of MDPs. We will discuss what we mean by “complex” and “large-scale” MDPs. Then we will explain why RL is needed to solve complex and large-scale MDPs. The semi-Markov decision problem (SMDP) will also be covered.

The tutorial is meant to serve as an introduction to these topics and is based mostly on the book: “Simulation-based optimization: Parametric Optimization techniques and reinforcement learning” [4]. The book discusses this topic in greater detail in the context of simulators. There are at least two other textbooks that I would recommend you to read: (i) Neuro-dynamic programming [2] (lots of details on convergence analysis) and (ii) Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction [11] (lots of details on underlying AI concepts). A more recent tutorial on this topic is [8]. This tutorial has 2 sections: • Section 2 discusses MDPs and SMDPs. • Section 3 discusses RL. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to • Identify problem structures that can be set up as MDPs / SMDPs. • Use some RL algorithms.

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The quest of `can machines think' and `can machines do what human do' are quests that drive the development of artificial intelligence. Although recent artificial intelligence succeeds in many data intensive applications, it still lacks the ability of learning from limited exemplars and fast generalizing to new tasks. To tackle this problem, one has to turn to machine learning, which supports the scientific study of artificial intelligence. Particularly, a machine learning problem called Few-Shot Learning (FSL) targets at this case. It can rapidly generalize to new tasks of limited supervised experience by turning to prior knowledge, which mimics human's ability to acquire knowledge from few examples through generalization and analogy. It has been seen as a test-bed for real artificial intelligence, a way to reduce laborious data gathering and computationally costly training, and antidote for rare cases learning. With extensive works on FSL emerging, we give a comprehensive survey for it. We first give the formal definition for FSL. Then we point out the core issues of FSL, which turns the problem from "how to solve FSL" to "how to deal with the core issues". Accordingly, existing works from the birth of FSL to the most recent published ones are categorized in a unified taxonomy, with thorough discussion of the pros and cons for different categories. Finally, we envision possible future directions for FSL in terms of problem setup, techniques, applications and theory, hoping to provide insights to both beginners and experienced researchers.

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Active learning from demonstration allows a robot to query a human for specific types of input to achieve efficient learning. Existing work has explored a variety of active query strategies; however, to our knowledge, none of these strategies directly minimize the performance risk of the policy the robot is learning. Utilizing recent advances in performance bounds for inverse reinforcement learning, we propose a risk-aware active inverse reinforcement learning algorithm that focuses active queries on areas of the state space with the potential for large generalization error. We show that risk-aware active learning outperforms standard active IRL approaches on gridworld, simulated driving, and table setting tasks, while also providing a performance-based stopping criterion that allows a robot to know when it has received enough demonstrations to safely perform a task.

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Objects are made of parts, each with distinct geometry, physics, functionality, and affordances. Developing such a distributed, physical, interpretable representation of objects will facilitate intelligent agents to better explore and interact with the world. In this paper, we study physical primitive decomposition---understanding an object through its components, each with physical and geometric attributes. As annotated data for object parts and physics are rare, we propose a novel formulation that learns physical primitives by explaining both an object's appearance and its behaviors in physical events. Our model performs well on block towers and tools in both synthetic and real scenarios; we also demonstrate that visual and physical observations often provide complementary signals. We further present ablation and behavioral studies to better understand our model and contrast it with human performance.

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Though quite challenging, leveraging large-scale unlabeled or partially labeled images in a cost-effective way has increasingly attracted interests for its great importance to computer vision. To tackle this problem, many Active Learning (AL) methods have been developed. However, these methods mainly define their sample selection criteria within a single image context, leading to the suboptimal robustness and impractical solution for large-scale object detection. In this paper, aiming to remedy the drawbacks of existing AL methods, we present a principled Self-supervised Sample Mining (SSM) process accounting for the real challenges in object detection. Specifically, our SSM process concentrates on automatically discovering and pseudo-labeling reliable region proposals for enhancing the object detector via the introduced cross image validation, i.e., pasting these proposals into different labeled images to comprehensively measure their values under different image contexts. By resorting to the SSM process, we propose a new AL framework for gradually incorporating unlabeled or partially labeled data into the model learning while minimizing the annotating effort of users. Extensive experiments on two public benchmarks clearly demonstrate our proposed framework can achieve the comparable performance to the state-of-the-art methods with significantly fewer annotations.

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