We introduce a novel approach to the automated termination analysis of computer programs: we train neural networks to behave as ranking functions. Ranking functions map program states to values that are bounded from below and decrease as the program runs. The existence of a valid ranking function proves that the program terminates. While existing methods usually construct ranking functions from source or machine code using symbolic reasoning, we propose a lightweight method that learns them from executions traces. We train a neural network so that its output decreases along sampled executions as a ranking function would; then, we use symbolic reasoning to verify whether it generalises to all possible executions. We demonstrate that, thanks to the ability of neural networks to generalise well, our method succeeds over a wide variety of programs. This includes programs that use data structures. We have built a prototype analyser for Java bytecode and show the efficacy of our method over a standard dataset of benchmarks.

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排序是计算机内经常进行的一种操作,其目的是将一组“无序”的记录序列调整为“有序”的记录序列。分内部排序和外部排序。若整个排序过程不需要访问外存便能完成,则称此类排序问题为内部排序。反之,若参加排序的记录数量很大,整个序列的排序过程不可能在内存中完成,则称此类排序问题为外部排序。内部排序的过程是一个逐步扩大记录的有序序列长度的过程。

Numerous physical systems are described by ordinary or partial differential equations whose solutions are given by holomorphic or meromorphic functions in the complex domain. In many cases, only the magnitude of these functions are observed on various points on the purely imaginary jw-axis since coherent measurement of their phases is often expensive. However, it is desirable to retrieve the lost phases from the magnitudes when possible. To this end, we propose a physics-infused deep neural network based on the Blaschke products for phase retrieval. Inspired by the Helson and Sarason Theorem, we recover coefficients of a rational function of Blaschke products using a Blaschke Product Neural Network (BPNN), based upon the magnitude observations as input. The resulting rational function is then used for phase retrieval. We compare the BPNN to conventional deep neural networks (NNs) on several phase retrieval problems, comprising both synthetic and contemporary real-world problems (e.g., metamaterials for which data collection requires substantial expertise and is time consuming). On each phase retrieval problem, we compare against a population of conventional NNs of varying size and hyperparameter settings. Even without any hyper-parameter search, we find that BPNNs consistently outperform the population of optimized NNs in scarce data scenarios, and do so despite being much smaller models. The results can in turn be applied to calculate the refractive index of metamaterials, which is an important problem in emerging areas of material science.

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Robustness to distribution shifts is critical for deploying machine learning models in the real world. Despite this necessity, there has been little work in defining the underlying mechanisms that cause these shifts and evaluating the robustness of algorithms across multiple, different distribution shifts. To this end, we introduce a framework that enables fine-grained analysis of various distribution shifts. We provide a holistic analysis of current state-of-the-art methods by evaluating 19 distinct methods grouped into five categories across both synthetic and real-world datasets. Overall, we train more than 85K models. Our experimental framework can be easily extended to include new methods, shifts, and datasets. We find, unlike previous work~\citep{Gulrajani20}, that progress has been made over a standard ERM baseline; in particular, pretraining and augmentations (learned or heuristic) offer large gains in many cases. However, the best methods are not consistent over different datasets and shifts.

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We propose Characteristic Neural Ordinary Differential Equations (C-NODEs), a framework for extending Neural Ordinary Differential Equations (NODEs) beyond ODEs. While NODEs model the evolution of the latent state as the solution to an ODE, the proposed C-NODE models the evolution of the latent state as the solution of a family of first-order quasi-linear partial differential equations (PDE) on their characteristics, defined as curves along which the PDEs reduce to ODEs. The reduction, in turn, allows the application of the standard frameworks for solving ODEs to PDE settings. Additionally, the proposed framework can be cast as an extension of existing NODE architectures, thereby allowing the use of existing black-box ODE solvers. We prove that the C-NODE framework extends the classical NODE by exhibiting functions that cannot be represented by NODEs but are representable by C-NODEs. We further investigate the efficacy of the C-NODE framework by demonstrating its performance in many synthetic and real data scenarios. Empirical results demonstrate the improvements provided by the proposed method for CIFAR-10, SVHN, and MNIST datasets under a similar computational budget as the existing NODE methods.

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In recent years, there has been significant work on increasing both interpretability and debuggability of a Deep Neural Network (DNN) by extracting a rule-based model that approximates its decision boundary. Nevertheless, current DNN rule extraction methods that consider a DNN's latent space when extracting rules, known as decompositional algorithms, are either restricted to single-layer DNNs or intractable as the size of the DNN or data grows. In this paper, we address these limitations by introducing ECLAIRE, a novel polynomial-time rule extraction algorithm capable of scaling to both large DNN architectures and large training datasets. We evaluate ECLAIRE on a wide variety of tasks, ranging from breast cancer prognosis to particle detection, and show that it consistently extracts more accurate and comprehensible rule sets than the current state-of-the-art methods while using orders of magnitude less computational resources. We make all of our methods available, including a rule set visualisation interface, through the open-source REMIX library (https://github.com/mateoespinosa/remix).

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Based on the analysis of the proportion of utility in the supporting transactions used in the field of data mining, high utility-occupancy pattern mining (HUOPM) has recently attracted widespread attention. Unlike high-utility pattern mining (HUPM), which involves the enumeration of high-utility (e.g., profitable) patterns, HUOPM aims to find patterns representing a collection of existing transactions. In practical applications, however, not all patterns are used or valuable. For example, a pattern might contain too many items, that is, the pattern might be too specific and therefore lack value for users in real life. To achieve qualified patterns with a flexible length, we constrain the minimum and maximum lengths during the mining process and introduce a novel algorithm for the mining of flexible high utility-occupancy patterns. Our algorithm is referred to as HUOPM+. To ensure the flexibility of the patterns and tighten the upper bound of the utility-occupancy, a strategy called the length upper-bound (LUB) is presented to prune the search space. In addition, a utility-occupancy nested list (UO-nlist) and a frequency-utility-occupancy table (FUO-table) are employed to avoid multiple scans of the database. Evaluation results of the subsequent experiments confirm that the proposed algorithm can effectively control the length of the derived patterns, for both real-world and synthetic datasets. Moreover, it can decrease the execution time and memory consumption.

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Label Propagation (LPA) and Graph Convolutional Neural Networks (GCN) are both message passing algorithms on graphs. Both solve the task of node classification but LPA propagates node label information across the edges of the graph, while GCN propagates and transforms node feature information. However, while conceptually similar, theoretical relation between LPA and GCN has not yet been investigated. Here we study the relationship between LPA and GCN in terms of two aspects: (1) feature/label smoothing where we analyze how the feature/label of one node is spread over its neighbors; And, (2) feature/label influence of how much the initial feature/label of one node influences the final feature/label of another node. Based on our theoretical analysis, we propose an end-to-end model that unifies GCN and LPA for node classification. In our unified model, edge weights are learnable, and the LPA serves as regularization to assist the GCN in learning proper edge weights that lead to improved classification performance. Our model can also be seen as learning attention weights based on node labels, which is more task-oriented than existing feature-based attention models. In a number of experiments on real-world graphs, our model shows superiority over state-of-the-art GCN-based methods in terms of node classification accuracy.

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Answering compositional questions that require multiple steps of reasoning against text is challenging, especially when they involve discrete, symbolic operations. Neural module networks (NMNs) learn to parse such questions as executable programs composed of learnable modules, performing well on synthetic visual QA domains. However, we find that it is challenging to learn these models for non-synthetic questions on open-domain text, where a model needs to deal with the diversity of natural language and perform a broader range of reasoning. We extend NMNs by: (a) introducing modules that reason over a paragraph of text, performing symbolic reasoning (such as arithmetic, sorting, counting) over numbers and dates in a probabilistic and differentiable manner; and (b) proposing an unsupervised auxiliary loss to help extract arguments associated with the events in text. Additionally, we show that a limited amount of heuristically-obtained question program and intermediate module output supervision provides sufficient inductive bias for accurate learning. Our proposed model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art models on a subset of the DROP dataset that poses a variety of reasoning challenges that are covered by our modules.

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Graph neural networks (GNNs) are a popular class of machine learning models whose major advantage is their ability to incorporate a sparse and discrete dependency structure between data points. Unfortunately, GNNs can only be used when such a graph-structure is available. In practice, however, real-world graphs are often noisy and incomplete or might not be available at all. With this work, we propose to jointly learn the graph structure and the parameters of graph convolutional networks (GCNs) by approximately solving a bilevel program that learns a discrete probability distribution on the edges of the graph. This allows one to apply GCNs not only in scenarios where the given graph is incomplete or corrupted but also in those where a graph is not available. We conduct a series of experiments that analyze the behavior of the proposed method and demonstrate that it outperforms related methods by a significant margin.

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Aspect based sentiment analysis (ABSA) can provide more detailed information than general sentiment analysis, because it aims to predict the sentiment polarities of the given aspects or entities in text. We summarize previous approaches into two subtasks: aspect-category sentiment analysis (ACSA) and aspect-term sentiment analysis (ATSA). Most previous approaches employ long short-term memory and attention mechanisms to predict the sentiment polarity of the concerned targets, which are often complicated and need more training time. We propose a model based on convolutional neural networks and gating mechanisms, which is more accurate and efficient. First, the novel Gated Tanh-ReLU Units can selectively output the sentiment features according to the given aspect or entity. The architecture is much simpler than attention layer used in the existing models. Second, the computations of our model could be easily parallelized during training, because convolutional layers do not have time dependency as in LSTM layers, and gating units also work independently. The experiments on SemEval datasets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our models.

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We introduce a new neural architecture to learn the conditional probability of an output sequence with elements that are discrete tokens corresponding to positions in an input sequence. Such problems cannot be trivially addressed by existent approaches such as sequence-to-sequence and Neural Turing Machines, because the number of target classes in each step of the output depends on the length of the input, which is variable. Problems such as sorting variable sized sequences, and various combinatorial optimization problems belong to this class. Our model solves the problem of variable size output dictionaries using a recently proposed mechanism of neural attention. It differs from the previous attention attempts in that, instead of using attention to blend hidden units of an encoder to a context vector at each decoder step, it uses attention as a pointer to select a member of the input sequence as the output. We call this architecture a Pointer Net (Ptr-Net). We show Ptr-Nets can be used to learn approximate solutions to three challenging geometric problems -- finding planar convex hulls, computing Delaunay triangulations, and the planar Travelling Salesman Problem -- using training examples alone. Ptr-Nets not only improve over sequence-to-sequence with input attention, but also allow us to generalize to variable size output dictionaries. We show that the learnt models generalize beyond the maximum lengths they were trained on. We hope our results on these tasks will encourage a broader exploration of neural learning for discrete problems.

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