报告研究团队由布朗大学计算机科学教授Michael L. Littman教授担任团队主席，来自学术界和行业研究实验室的17名成员组成，成员包括计算机科学、工程学、法律学、政治学、政策学、社会学和经济学学者。
The quest of `can machines think' and `can machines do what human do' are quests that drive the development of artificial intelligence. Although recent artificial intelligence succeeds in many data intensive applications, it still lacks the ability of learning from limited exemplars and fast generalizing to new tasks. To tackle this problem, one has to turn to machine learning, which supports the scientific study of artificial intelligence. Particularly, a machine learning problem called Few-Shot Learning (FSL) targets at this case. It can rapidly generalize to new tasks of limited supervised experience by turning to prior knowledge, which mimics human's ability to acquire knowledge from few examples through generalization and analogy. It has been seen as a test-bed for real artificial intelligence, a way to reduce laborious data gathering and computationally costly training, and antidote for rare cases learning. With extensive works on FSL emerging, we give a comprehensive survey for it. We first give the formal definition for FSL. Then we point out the core issues of FSL, which turns the problem from "how to solve FSL" to "how to deal with the core issues". Accordingly, existing works from the birth of FSL to the most recent published ones are categorized in a unified taxonomy, with thorough discussion of the pros and cons for different categories. Finally, we envision possible future directions for FSL in terms of problem setup, techniques, applications and theory, hoping to provide insights to both beginners and experienced researchers.
Generative models trained using Differential Privacy (DP) are increasingly used to produce and share synthetic data in a privacy-friendly manner. In this paper, we set out to analyze the impact of DP on these models vis-a-vis underrepresented classes and subgroups of data. We do so from two angles: 1) the size of classes and subgroups in the synthetic data, and 2) classification accuracy on them. We also evaluate the effect of various levels of imbalance and privacy budgets. Our experiments, conducted using three state-of-the-art DP models (PrivBayes, DP-WGAN, and PATE-GAN), show that DP results in opposite size distributions in the generated synthetic data. More precisely, it affects the gap between the majority and minority classes and subgroups, either reducing it (a "Robin Hood" effect) or increasing it ("Matthew" effect). However, both of these size shifts lead to similar disparate impacts on a classifier's accuracy, affecting disproportionately more the underrepresented subparts of the data. As a result, we call for caution when analyzing or training a model on synthetic data, or risk treating different subpopulations unevenly, which might also lead to unreliable conclusions.