计算机科学(Computer Science, CS)是系统性研究信息与计算的理论基础以及它们在计算机系统中如何实现与应用的实用技术的学科。 它通常被形容为对那些创造、描述以及转换信息的算法处理的系统研究。计算机科学包含很多分支领域;其中一些,比如计算机图形学强调特定结果的计算,而另外一些,比如计算复杂性理论是学习计算问题的性质。还有一些领域专注于挑战怎样实现计算。比如程序设计语言理论学习描述计算的方法,而程序设计是应用特定的程序设计语言解决特定的计算问题,人机交互则是专注于挑战怎样使计算机和计算变得有用、可用,以及随时随地为 所用。 现代计算机科学( Computer Science)包含理论计算机科学和应用计算机科学两大分支。

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Let $P$ be a polyhedron, defined by a system $A x \leq b$, where $A \in Z^{m \times n}$, $rank(A) = n$, and $b \in Z^{m}$. In the Integer Feasibility Problem, we need to decide whether $P \cap Z^n = \emptyset$ or to find some $x \in P \cap Z^n$ in the opposite case. Currently, its state of the art algorithm, due to \cite{DadushDis,DadushFDim} (see also \cite{Convic,ConvicComp,DConvic} for more general formulations), has the complexity bound $O(n)^n \cdot poly(\phi)$, where $\phi = size(A,b)$. It is a long-standing open problem to break the $O(n)^n$ dimension-dependence in the complexity of ILP algorithms. We show that if the matrix $A$ has a small $l_1$ or $l_\infty$ norm, or $A$ is sparse and has bounded elements, then the integer feasibility problem can be solved faster. More precisely, we give the following complexity bounds \begin{gather*} \min\{\|A\|_{\infty}, \|A\|_1\}^{5 n} \cdot 2^n \cdot poly(\phi), \bigl( \|A\|_{\max} \bigr)^{5 n} \cdot \min\{cs(A),rs(A)\}^{3 n} \cdot 2^n \cdot poly(\phi). \end{gather*} Here $\|A\|_{\max}$ denotes the maximal absolute value of elements of $A$, $cs(A)$ and $rs(A)$ denote the maximal number of nonzero elements in columns and rows of $A$, respectively. We present similar results for the integer linear counting and optimization problems. Additionally, we apply the last result for multipacking and multicover problems on graphs and hypergraphs, where we need to choose a minimal/maximal multiset of vertices to cover/pack the edges by a prescribed number of times. For example, we show that the stable multiset and vertex multicover problems on simple graphs admit FPT-algorithms with the complexity bound $2^{O(|V|)} \cdot poly(\phi)$, where $V$ is the vertex set of a given graph.

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