Frozen sectioning (FS) is the preparation method of choice for microscopic evaluation of tissues during surgical operations. The high speed of the procedure allows pathologists to rapidly assess the key microscopic features, such as tumour margins and malignant status to guide surgical decision-making and minimise disruptions to the course of the operation. However, FS is prone to introducing many misleading artificial structures (histological artefacts), such as nuclear ice crystals, compression, and cutting artefacts, hindering timely and accurate diagnostic judgement of the pathologist. Additional training and prolonged experience is often required to make highly effective and time-critical diagnosis on frozen sections. On the other hand, the gold standard tissue preparation technique of formalin-fixation and paraffin-embedding (FFPE) provides significantly superior image quality, but is a very time-consuming process (12-48 hours), making it unsuitable for intra-operative use. In this paper, we propose an artificial intelligence (AI) method that improves FS image quality by computationally transforming frozen-sectioned whole-slide images (FS-WSIs) into whole-slide FFPE-style images in minutes. AI-FFPE rectifies FS artefacts with the guidance of an attention mechanism that puts a particular emphasis on artefacts while utilising a self-regularization mechanism established between FS input image and synthesized FFPE-style image that preserves clinically relevant features. As a result, AI-FFPE method successfully generates FFPE-style images without significantly extending tissue processing time and consequently improves diagnostic accuracy. We demonstrate the efficacy of AI-FFPE on lung and brain frozen sections using a variety of different qualitative and quantitative metrics including visual Turing tests from 20 board certified pathologists.

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Processing 是一门开源编程语言和与之配套的集成开发环境(IDE)的名称。Processing 在电子艺术和视觉设计社区被用来教授编程基础,并运用于大量的新媒体和互动艺术作品中。

In the field of reproductive health, a vital aspect for the detection of male fertility issues is the analysis of human semen quality. Two factors of importance are the morphology and motility of the sperm cells. While the former describes defects in different parts of a spermatozoon, the latter measures the efficient movement of cells. For many non-human species, so-called Computer-Aided Sperm Analysis systems work well for assessing these characteristics from microscopic video recordings but struggle with human sperm samples which generally show higher degrees of debris and dead spermatozoa, as well as lower overall sperm motility. Here, machine learning methods that harness large amounts of training data to extract salient features could support physicians with the detection of fertility issues or in vitro fertilisation procedures. In this work, the overall motility of given sperm samples is predicted with the help of a machine learning framework integrating unsupervised methods for feature extraction with downstream regression models. The models evaluated herein improve on the state-of-the-art for video-based sperm-motility prediction.

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When machine predictors can achieve higher performance than the human decision-makers they support, improving the performance of human decision-makers is often conflated with improving machine accuracy. Here we propose a framework to directly support human decision-making, in which the role of machines is to reframe problems rather than to prescribe actions through prediction. Inspired by the success of representation learning in improving performance of machine predictors, our framework learns human-facing representations optimized for human performance. This "Mind Composed with Machine" framework incorporates a human decision-making model directly into the representation learning paradigm and is trained with a novel human-in-the-loop training procedure. We empirically demonstrate the successful application of the framework to various tasks and representational forms.

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Medulloblastoma (MB) is a primary central nervous system tumor and the most common malignant brain cancer among children. Neuropathologists perform microscopic inspection of histopathological tissue slides under a microscope to assess the severity of the tumor. This is a time-consuming task and often infused with observer variability. Recently, pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNN) have shown promising results for MB subtype classification. Typically, high-resolution images are divided into smaller tiles for classification, while the size of the tiles has not been systematically evaluated. We study the impact of tile size and input strategy and classify the two major histopathological subtypes-Classic and Demoplastic/Nodular. To this end, we use recently proposed EfficientNets and evaluate tiles with increasing size combined with various downsampling scales. Our results demonstrate using large input tiles pixels followed by intermediate downsampling and patch cropping significantly improves MB classification performance. Our top-performing method achieves the AUC-ROC value of 90.90\% compared to 84.53\% using the previous approach with smaller input tiles.

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Human pose estimation aims to locate the human body parts and build human body representation (e.g., body skeleton) from input data such as images and videos. It has drawn increasing attention during the past decade and has been utilized in a wide range of applications including human-computer interaction, motion analysis, augmented reality, and virtual reality. Although the recently developed deep learning-based solutions have achieved high performance in human pose estimation, there still remain challenges due to insufficient training data, depth ambiguities, and occlusions. The goal of this survey paper is to provide a comprehensive review of recent deep learning-based solutions for both 2D and 3D pose estimation via a systematic analysis and comparison of these solutions based on their input data and inference procedures. More than 240 research papers since 2014 are covered in this survey. Furthermore, 2D and 3D human pose estimation datasets and evaluation metrics are included. Quantitative performance comparisons of the reviewed methods on popular datasets are summarized and discussed. Finally, the challenges involved, applications, and future research directions are concluded. We also provide a regularly updated project page on: \url{https://github.com/zczcwh/DL-HPE}

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Machine learning plays a role in many deployed decision systems, often in ways that are difficult or impossible to understand by human stakeholders. Explaining, in a human-understandable way, the relationship between the input and output of machine learning models is essential to the development of trustworthy machine-learning-based systems. A burgeoning body of research seeks to define the goals and methods of explainability in machine learning. In this paper, we seek to review and categorize research on counterfactual explanations, a specific class of explanation that provides a link between what could have happened had input to a model been changed in a particular way. Modern approaches to counterfactual explainability in machine learning draw connections to the established legal doctrine in many countries, making them appealing to fielded systems in high-impact areas such as finance and healthcare. Thus, we design a rubric with desirable properties of counterfactual explanation algorithms and comprehensively evaluate all currently-proposed algorithms against that rubric. Our rubric provides easy comparison and comprehension of the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches and serves as an introduction to major research themes in this field. We also identify gaps and discuss promising research directions in the space of counterfactual explainability.

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Deep learning has been successfully applied to solve various complex problems ranging from big data analytics to computer vision and human-level control. Deep learning advances however have also been employed to create software that can cause threats to privacy, democracy and national security. One of those deep learning-powered applications recently emerged is "deepfake". Deepfake algorithms can create fake images and videos that humans cannot distinguish them from authentic ones. The proposal of technologies that can automatically detect and assess the integrity of digital visual media is therefore indispensable. This paper presents a survey of algorithms used to create deepfakes and, more importantly, methods proposed to detect deepfakes in the literature to date. We present extensive discussions on challenges, research trends and directions related to deepfake technologies. By reviewing the background of deepfakes and state-of-the-art deepfake detection methods, this study provides a comprehensive overview of deepfake techniques and facilitates the development of new and more robust methods to deal with the increasingly challenging deepfakes.

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The current strive towards end-to-end trainable computer vision systems imposes major challenges for the task of visual tracking. In contrast to most other vision problems, tracking requires the learning of a robust target-specific appearance model online, during the inference stage. To be end-to-end trainable, the online learning of the target model thus needs to be embedded in the tracking architecture itself. Due to these difficulties, the popular Siamese paradigm simply predicts a target feature template. However, such a model possesses limited discriminative power due to its inability of integrating background information. We develop an end-to-end tracking architecture, capable of fully exploiting both target and background appearance information for target model prediction. Our architecture is derived from a discriminative learning loss by designing a dedicated optimization process that is capable of predicting a powerful model in only a few iterations. Furthermore, our approach is able to learn key aspects of the discriminative loss itself. The proposed tracker sets a new state-of-the-art on 6 tracking benchmarks, achieving an EAO score of 0.440 on VOT2018, while running at over 40 FPS.

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Deep learning (DL) is a high dimensional data reduction technique for constructing high-dimensional predictors in input-output models. DL is a form of machine learning that uses hierarchical layers of latent features. In this article, we review the state-of-the-art of deep learning from a modeling and algorithmic perspective. We provide a list of successful areas of applications in Artificial Intelligence (AI), Image Processing, Robotics and Automation. Deep learning is predictive in its nature rather then inferential and can be viewed as a black-box methodology for high-dimensional function estimation.

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Data augmentation has been widely used for training deep learning systems for medical image segmentation and plays an important role in obtaining robust and transformation-invariant predictions. However, it has seldom been used at test time for segmentation and not been formulated in a consistent mathematical framework. In this paper, we first propose a theoretical formulation of test-time augmentation for deep learning in image recognition, where the prediction is obtained through estimating its expectation by Monte Carlo simulation with prior distributions of parameters in an image acquisition model that involves image transformations and noise. We then propose a novel uncertainty estimation method based on the formulated test-time augmentation. Experiments with segmentation of fetal brains and brain tumors from 2D and 3D Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) showed that 1) our test-time augmentation outperforms a single-prediction baseline and dropout-based multiple predictions, and 2) it provides a better uncertainty estimation than calculating the model-based uncertainty alone and helps to reduce overconfident incorrect predictions.

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Click through rate (CTR) prediction of image ads is the core task of online display advertising systems, and logistic regression (LR) has been frequently applied as the prediction model. However, LR model lacks the ability of extracting complex and intrinsic nonlinear features from handcrafted high-dimensional image features, which limits its effectiveness. To solve this issue, in this paper, we introduce a novel deep neural network (DNN) based model that directly predicts the CTR of an image ad based on raw image pixels and other basic features in one step. The DNN model employs convolution layers to automatically extract representative visual features from images, and nonlinear CTR features are then learned from visual features and other contextual features by using fully-connected layers. Empirical evaluations on a real world dataset with over 50 million records demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of this method.

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