A vexing problem in artificial intelligence is reasoning about events that occur in complex, changing visual stimuli such as in video analysis or game play. Inspired by a rich tradition of visual reasoning and memory in cognitive psychology and neuroscience, we developed an artificial, configurable visual question and answer dataset (COG) to parallel experiments in humans and animals. COG is much simpler than the general problem of video analysis, yet it addresses many of the problems relating to visual and logical reasoning and memory -- problems that remain challenging for modern deep learning architectures. We additionally propose a deep learning architecture that performs competitively on other diagnostic VQA datasets (i.e. CLEVR) as well as easy settings of the COG dataset. However, several settings of COG result in datasets that are progressively more challenging to learn. After training, the network can zero-shot generalize to many new tasks. Preliminary analyses of the network architectures trained on COG demonstrate that the network accomplishes the task in a manner interpretable to humans.
Solving complex, temporally-extended tasks is a long-standing problem in reinforcement learning (RL). We hypothesize that one critical element of solving such problems is the notion of compositionality. With the ability to learn concepts and sub-skills that can be composed to solve longer tasks, i.e. hierarchical RL, we can acquire temporally-extended behaviors. However, acquiring effective yet general abstractions for hierarchical RL is remarkably challenging. In this paper, we propose to use language as the abstraction, as it provides unique compositional structure, enabling fast learning and combinatorial generalization, while retaining tremendous flexibility, making it suitable for a variety of problems. Our approach learns an instruction-following low-level policy and a high-level policy that can reuse abstractions across tasks, in essence, permitting agents to reason using structured language. To study compositional task learning, we introduce an open-source object interaction environment built using the MuJoCo physics engine and the CLEVR engine. We find that, using our approach, agents can learn to solve to diverse, temporally-extended tasks such as object sorting and multi-object rearrangement, including from raw pixel observations. Our analysis find that the compositional nature of language is critical for learning diverse sub-skills and systematically generalizing to new sub-skills in comparison to non-compositional abstractions that use the same supervision.
The recently introduced BERT model exhibits strong performance on several language understanding benchmarks. In this paper, we describe a simple re-implementation of BERT for commonsense reasoning. We show that the attentions produced by BERT can be directly utilized for tasks such as the Pronoun Disambiguation Problem and Winograd Schema Challenge. Our proposed attention-guided commonsense reasoning method is conceptually simple yet empirically powerful. Experimental analysis on multiple datasets demonstrates that our proposed system performs remarkably well on all cases while outperforming the previously reported state of the art by a margin. While results suggest that BERT seems to implicitly learn to establish complex relationships between entities, solving commonsense reasoning tasks might require more than unsupervised models learned from huge text corpora.
We introduce GQA, a new dataset for real-world visual reasoning and compositional question answering, seeking to address key shortcomings of previous VQA datasets. We have developed a strong and robust question engine that leverages scene graph structures to create 22M diverse reasoning questions, all come with functional programs that represent their semantics. We use the programs to gain tight control over the answer distribution and present a new tunable smoothing technique to mitigate question biases. Accompanying the dataset is a suite of new metrics that evaluate essential qualities such as consistency, grounding and plausibility. An extensive analysis is performed for baselines as well as state-of-the-art models, providing fine-grained results for different question types and topologies. Whereas a blind LSTM obtains mere 42.1%, and strong VQA models achieve 54.1%, human performance tops at 89.3%, offering ample opportunity for new research to explore. We strongly hope GQA will provide an enabling resource for the next generation of models with enhanced robustness, improved consistency, and deeper semantic understanding for images and language.
During the last years, there has been a lot of interest in achieving some kind of complex reasoning using deep neural networks. To do that, models like Memory Networks (MemNNs) have combined external memory storages and attention mechanisms. These architectures, however, lack of more complex reasoning mechanisms that could allow, for instance, relational reasoning. Relation Networks (RNs), on the other hand, have shown outstanding results in relational reasoning tasks. Unfortunately, their computational cost grows quadratically with the number of memories, something prohibitive for larger problems. To solve these issues, we introduce the Working Memory Network, a MemNN architecture with a novel working memory storage and reasoning module. Our model retains the relational reasoning abilities of the RN while reducing its computational complexity from quadratic to linear. We tested our model on the text QA dataset bAbI and the visual QA dataset NLVR. In the jointly trained bAbI-10k, we set a new state-of-the-art, achieving a mean error of less than 0.5%. Moreover, a simple ensemble of two of our models solves all 20 tasks in the joint version of the benchmark.
Machine comprehension is a representative task of natural language understanding. Typically, we are given context paragraph and the objective is to answer a question that depends on the context. Such a problem requires to model the complex interactions between the context paragraph and the question. Lately, attention mechanisms have been found to be quite successful at these tasks and in particular, attention mechanisms with attention flow from both context-to-question and question-to-context have been proven to be quite useful. In this paper, we study two state-of-the-art attention mechanisms called Bi-Directional Attention Flow (BiDAF) and Dynamic Co-Attention Network (DCN) and propose a hybrid scheme combining these two architectures that gives better overall performance. Moreover, we also suggest a new simpler attention mechanism that we call Double Cross Attention (DCA) that provides better results compared to both BiDAF and Co-Attention mechanisms while providing similar performance as the hybrid scheme. The objective of our paper is to focus particularly on the attention layer and to suggest improvements on that. Our experimental evaluations show that both our proposed models achieve superior results on the Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD) compared to BiDAF and DCN attention mechanisms.
In this paper, we exploit a memory-augmented neural network to predict accurate answers to visual questions, even when those answers occur rarely in the training set. The memory network incorporates both internal and external memory blocks and selectively pays attention to each training exemplar. We show that memory-augmented neural networks are able to maintain a relatively long-term memory of scarce training exemplars, which is important for visual question answering due to the heavy-tailed distribution of answers in a general VQA setting. Experimental results on two large-scale benchmark datasets show the favorable performance of the proposed algorithm with a comparison to state of the art.
Many vision and language tasks require commonsense reasoning beyond data-driven image and natural language processing. Here we adopt Visual Question Answering (VQA) as an example task, where a system is expected to answer a question in natural language about an image. Current state-of-the-art systems attempted to solve the task using deep neural architectures and achieved promising performance. However, the resulting systems are generally opaque and they struggle in understanding questions for which extra knowledge is required. In this paper, we present an explicit reasoning layer on top of a set of penultimate neural network based systems. The reasoning layer enables reasoning and answering questions where additional knowledge is required, and at the same time provides an interpretable interface to the end users. Specifically, the reasoning layer adopts a Probabilistic Soft Logic (PSL) based engine to reason over a basket of inputs: visual relations, the semantic parse of the question, and background ontological knowledge from word2vec and ConceptNet. Experimental analysis of the answers and the key evidential predicates generated on the VQA dataset validate our approach.
Visual question answering requires high-order reasoning about an image, which is a fundamental capability needed by machine systems to follow complex directives. Recently, modular networks have been shown to be an effective framework for performing visual reasoning tasks. While modular networks were initially designed with a degree of model transparency, their performance on complex visual reasoning benchmarks was lacking. Current state-of-the-art approaches do not provide an effective mechanism for understanding the reasoning process. In this paper, we close the performance gap between interpretable models and state-of-the-art visual reasoning methods. We propose a set of visual-reasoning primitives which, when composed, manifest as a model capable of performing complex reasoning tasks in an explicitly-interpretable manner. The fidelity and interpretability of the primitives' outputs enable an unparalleled ability to diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of the resulting model. Critically, we show that these primitives are highly performant, achieving state-of-the-art accuracy of 99.1% on the CLEVR dataset. We also show that our model is able to effectively learn generalized representations when provided a small amount of data containing novel object attributes. Using the CoGenT generalization task, we show more than a 20 percentage point improvement over the current state of the art.
The robust and efficient recognition of visual relations in images is a hallmark of biological vision. Here, we argue that, despite recent progress in visual recognition, modern machine vision algorithms are severely limited in their ability to learn visual relations. Through controlled experiments, we demonstrate that visual-relation problems strain convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The networks eventually break altogether when rote memorization becomes impossible such as when the intra-class variability exceeds their capacity. We further show that another type of feedforward network, called a relational network (RN), which was shown to successfully solve seemingly difficult visual question answering (VQA) problems on the CLEVR datasets, suffers similar limitations. Motivated by the comparable success of biological vision, we argue that feedback mechanisms including working memory and attention are the key computational components underlying abstract visual reasoning.
To solve the text-based question and answering task that requires relational reasoning, it is necessary to memorize a large amount of information and find out the question relevant information from the memory. Most approaches were based on external memory and four components proposed by Memory Network. The distinctive component among them was the way of finding the necessary information and it contributes to the performance. Recently, a simple but powerful neural network module for reasoning called Relation Network (RN) has been introduced. We analyzed RN from the view of Memory Network, and realized that its MLP component is able to reveal the complicate relation between question and object pair. Motivated from it, we introduce which uses MLP to find out relevant information on Memory Network architecture. It shows new state-of-the-art results in jointly trained bAbI-10k story-based question answering tasks and bAbI dialog-based question answering tasks.