LiDAR-based 3D object detection is an important task for autonomous driving and current approaches suffer from sparse and partial point clouds of distant and occluded objects. In this paper, we propose a novel two-stage approach, namely PC-RGNN, dealing with such challenges by two specific solutions. On the one hand, we introduce a point cloud completion module to recover high-quality proposals of dense points and entire views with original structures preserved. On the other hand, a graph neural network module is designed, which comprehensively captures relations among points through a local-global attention mechanism as well as multi-scale graph based context aggregation, substantially strengthening encoded features. Extensive experiments on the KITTI benchmark show that the proposed approach outperforms the previous state-of-the-art baselines by remarkable margins, highlighting its effectiveness.
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have recently become increasingly popular due to their ability to learn complex systems of relations or interactions arising in a broad spectrum of problems ranging from biology and particle physics to social networks and recommendation systems. Despite the plethora of different models for deep learning on graphs, few approaches have been proposed thus far for dealing with graphs that present some sort of dynamic nature (e.g. evolving features or connectivity over time). In this paper, we present Temporal Graph Networks (TGNs), a generic, efficient framework for deep learning on dynamic graphs represented as sequences of timed events. Thanks to a novel combination of memory modules and graph-based operators, TGNs are able to significantly outperform previous approaches being at the same time more computationally efficient. We furthermore show that several previous models for learning on dynamic graphs can be cast as specific instances of our framework. We perform a detailed ablation study of different components of our framework and devise the best configuration that achieves state-of-the-art performance on several transductive and inductive prediction tasks for dynamic graphs.
We present DeepICP - a novel end-to-end learning-based 3D point cloud registration framework that achieves comparable registration accuracy to prior state-of-the-art geometric methods. Different from other keypoint based methods where a RANSAC procedure is usually needed, we implement the use of various deep neural network structures to establish an end-to-end trainable network. Our keypoint detector is trained through this end-to-end structure and enables the system to avoid the inference of dynamic objects, leverages the help of sufficiently salient features on stationary objects, and as a result, achieves high robustness. Rather than searching the corresponding points among existing points, the key contribution is that we innovatively generate them based on learned matching probabilities among a group of candidates, which can boost the registration accuracy. Our loss function incorporates both the local similarity and the global geometric constraints to ensure all above network designs can converge towards the right direction. We comprehensively validate the effectiveness of our approach using both the KITTI dataset and the Apollo-SouthBay dataset. Results demonstrate that our method achieves comparable or better performance than the state-of-the-art geometry-based methods. Detailed ablation and visualization analysis are included to further illustrate the behavior and insights of our network. The low registration error and high robustness of our method makes it attractive for substantial applications relying on the point cloud registration task.
Benefit from the quick development of deep learning techniques, salient object detection has achieved remarkable progresses recently. However, there still exists following two major challenges that hinder its application in embedded devices, low resolution output and heavy model weight. To this end, this paper presents an accurate yet compact deep network for efficient salient object detection. More specifically, given a coarse saliency prediction in the deepest layer, we first employ residual learning to learn side-output residual features for saliency refinement, which can be achieved with very limited convolutional parameters while keep accuracy. Secondly, we further propose reverse attention to guide such side-output residual learning in a top-down manner. By erasing the current predicted salient regions from side-output features, the network can eventually explore the missing object parts and details which results in high resolution and accuracy. Experiments on six benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach compares favorably against state-of-the-art methods, and with advantages in terms of simplicity, efficiency (45 FPS) and model size (81 MB).
We propose a 3D object detection method for autonomous driving by fully exploiting the sparse and dense, semantic and geometry information in stereo imagery. Our method, called Stereo R-CNN, extends Faster R-CNN for stereo inputs to simultaneously detect and associate object in left and right images. We add extra branches after stereo Region Proposal Network (RPN) to predict sparse keypoints, viewpoints, and object dimensions, which are combined with 2D left-right boxes to calculate a coarse 3D object bounding box. We then recover the accurate 3D bounding box by a region-based photometric alignment using left and right RoIs. Our method does not require depth input and 3D position supervision, however, outperforms all existing fully supervised image-based methods. Experiments on the challenging KITTI dataset show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art stereo-based method by around 30% AP on both 3D detection and 3D localization tasks. Code will be made publicly available.
The task of detecting 3D objects in point cloud has a pivotal role in many real-world applications. However, 3D object detection performance is behind that of 2D object detection due to the lack of powerful 3D feature extraction methods. In order to address this issue, we propose to build a 3D backbone network to learn rich 3D feature maps by using sparse 3D CNN operations for 3D object detection in point cloud. The 3D backbone network can inherently learn 3D features from almost raw data without compressing point cloud into multiple 2D images and generate rich feature maps for object detection. The sparse 3D CNN takes full advantages of the sparsity in the 3D point cloud to accelerate computation and save memory, which makes the 3D backbone network achievable. Empirical experiments are conducted on the KITTI benchmark and results show that the proposed method can achieve state-of-the-art performance for 3D object detection.
In this paper, we propose PointRCNN for 3D object detection from raw point cloud. The whole framework is composed of two stages: stage-1 for the bottom-up 3D proposal generation and stage-2 for refining proposals in the canonical coordinates to obtain the final detection results. Instead of generating proposals from RGB image or projecting point cloud to bird's view or voxels as previous methods do, our stage-1 sub-network directly generates a small number of high-quality 3D proposals from point cloud in a bottom-up manner via segmenting the point cloud of whole scene into foreground points and background. The stage-2 sub-network transforms the pooled points of each proposal to canonical coordinates to learn better local spatial features, which is combined with global semantic features of each point learned in stage-1 for accurate box refinement and confidence prediction. Extensive experiments on the 3D detection benchmark of KITTI dataset show that our proposed architecture outperforms state-of-the-art methods with remarkable margins by using only point cloud as input.
We introduce a network that directly predicts the 3D layout of lanes in a road scene from a single image. This work marks a first attempt to address this task with on-board sensing instead of relying on pre-mapped environments. Our network architecture, 3D-LaneNet, applies two new concepts: intra-network inverse-perspective mapping (IPM) and anchor-based lane representation. The intra-network IPM projection facilitates a dual-representation information flow in both regular image-view and top-view. An anchor-per-column output representation enables our end-to-end approach replacing common heuristics such as clustering and outlier rejection. In addition, our approach explicitly handles complex situations such as lane merges and splits. Promising results are shown on a new 3D lane synthetic dataset. For comparison with existing methods, we verify our approach on the image-only tuSimple lane detection benchmark and reach competitive performance.
Current top-performing object detectors depend on deep CNN backbones, such as ResNet-101 and Inception, benefiting from their powerful feature representations but suffering from high computational costs. Conversely, some lightweight model based detectors fulfil real time processing, while their accuracies are often criticized. In this paper, we explore an alternative to build a fast and accurate detector by strengthening lightweight features using a hand-crafted mechanism. Inspired by the structure of Receptive Fields (RFs) in human visual systems, we propose a novel RF Block (RFB) module, which takes the relationship between the size and eccentricity of RFs into account, to enhance the feature discriminability and robustness. We further assemble RFB to the top of SSD, constructing the RFB Net detector. To evaluate its effectiveness, experiments are conducted on two major benchmarks and the results show that RFB Net is able to reach the performance of advanced very deep detectors while keeping the real-time speed. Code is available at https://github.com/ruinmessi/RFBNet.
Lidar based 3D object detection is inevitable for autonomous driving, because it directly links to environmental understanding and therefore builds the base for prediction and motion planning. The capacity of inferencing highly sparse 3D data in real-time is an ill-posed problem for lots of other application areas besides automated vehicles, e.g. augmented reality, personal robotics or industrial automation. We introduce Complex-YOLO, a state of the art real-time 3D object detection network on point clouds only. In this work, we describe a network that expands YOLOv2, a fast 2D standard object detector for RGB images, by a specific complex regression strategy to estimate multi-class 3D boxes in Cartesian space. Thus, we propose a specific Euler-Region-Proposal Network (E-RPN) to estimate the pose of the object by adding an imaginary and a real fraction to the regression network. This ends up in a closed complex space and avoids singularities, which occur by single angle estimations. The E-RPN supports to generalize well during training. Our experiments on the KITTI benchmark suite show that we outperform current leading methods for 3D object detection specifically in terms of efficiency. We achieve state of the art results for cars, pedestrians and cyclists by being more than five times faster than the fastest competitor. Further, our model is capable of estimating all eight KITTI-classes, including Vans, Trucks or sitting pedestrians simultaneously with high accuracy.