We'd like to share a simple tweak of Single Shot Multibox Detector (SSD) family of detectors, which is effective in reducing model size while maintaining the same quality. We share box predictors across all scales, and replace convolution between scales with max pooling. This has two advantages over vanilla SSD: (1) it avoids score miscalibration across scales; (2) the shared predictor sees the training data over all scales. Since we reduce the number of predictors to one, and trim all convolutions between them, model size is significantly smaller. We empirically show that these changes do not hurt model quality compared to vanilla SSD.
Current state-of-the-art convolutional architectures for object detection are manually designed. Here we aim to learn a better architecture of feature pyramid network for object detection. We adopt Neural Architecture Search and discover a new feature pyramid architecture in a novel scalable search space covering all cross-scale connections. The discovered architecture, named NAS-FPN, consists of a combination of top-down and bottom-up connections to fuse features across scales. NAS-FPN, combined with various backbone models in the RetinaNet framework, achieves better accuracy and latency tradeoff compared to state-of-the-art object detection models. NAS-FPN improves mobile detection accuracy by 2 AP compared to state-of-the-art SSDLite with MobileNetV2 model in  and achieves 48.3 AP which surpasses Mask R-CNN  detection accuracy with less computation time.
Benefit from the quick development of deep learning techniques, salient object detection has achieved remarkable progresses recently. However, there still exists following two major challenges that hinder its application in embedded devices, low resolution output and heavy model weight. To this end, this paper presents an accurate yet compact deep network for efficient salient object detection. More specifically, given a coarse saliency prediction in the deepest layer, we first employ residual learning to learn side-output residual features for saliency refinement, which can be achieved with very limited convolutional parameters while keep accuracy. Secondly, we further propose reverse attention to guide such side-output residual learning in a top-down manner. By erasing the current predicted salient regions from side-output features, the network can eventually explore the missing object parts and details which results in high resolution and accuracy. Experiments on six benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach compares favorably against state-of-the-art methods, and with advantages in terms of simplicity, efficiency (45 FPS) and model size (81 MB).
It is a common paradigm in object detection frameworks to treat all samples equally and target at maximizing the performance on average. In this work, we revisit this paradigm through a careful study on how different samples contribute to the overall performance measured in terms of mAP. Our study suggests that the samples in each mini-batch are neither independent nor equally important, and therefore a better classifier on average does not necessarily mean higher mAP. Motivated by this study, we propose the notion of Prime Samples, those that play a key role in driving the detection performance. We further develop a simple yet effective sampling and learning strategy called PrIme Sample Attention (PISA) that directs the focus of the training process towards such samples. Our experiments demonstrate that it is often more effective to focus on prime samples than hard samples when training a detector. Particularly, On the MSCOCO dataset, PISA outperforms the random sampling baseline and hard mining schemes, e.g. OHEM and Focal Loss, consistently by more than 1% on both single-stage and two-stage detectors, with a strong backbone ResNeXt-101.
Although YOLOv2 approach is extremely fast on object detection; its backbone network has the low ability on feature extraction and fails to make full use of multi-scale local region features, which restricts the improvement of object detection accuracy. Therefore, this paper proposed a DC-SPP-YOLO (Dense Connection and Spatial Pyramid Pooling Based YOLO) approach for ameliorating the object detection accuracy of YOLOv2. Specifically, the dense connection of convolution layers is employed in the backbone network of YOLOv2 to strengthen the feature extraction and alleviate the vanishing-gradient problem. Moreover, an improved spatial pyramid pooling is introduced to pool and concatenate the multi-scale local region features, so that the network can learn the object features more comprehensively. The DC-SPP-YOLO model is established and trained based on a new loss function composed of mean square error and cross entropy, and the object detection is realized. Experiments demonstrate that the mAP (mean Average Precision) of DC-SPP-YOLO proposed on PASCAL VOC datasets and UA-DETRAC datasets is higher than that of YOLOv2; the object detection accuracy of DC-SPP-YOLO is superior to YOLOv2 by strengthening feature extraction and using the multi-scale local region features.
The task of detecting 3D objects in point cloud has a pivotal role in many real-world applications. However, 3D object detection performance is behind that of 2D object detection due to the lack of powerful 3D feature extraction methods. In order to address this issue, we propose to build a 3D backbone network to learn rich 3D feature maps by using sparse 3D CNN operations for 3D object detection in point cloud. The 3D backbone network can inherently learn 3D features from almost raw data without compressing point cloud into multiple 2D images and generate rich feature maps for object detection. The sparse 3D CNN takes full advantages of the sparsity in the 3D point cloud to accelerate computation and save memory, which makes the 3D backbone network achievable. Empirical experiments are conducted on the KITTI benchmark and results show that the proposed method can achieve state-of-the-art performance for 3D object detection.
Recent CNN based object detectors, no matter one-stage methods like YOLO, SSD, and RetinaNe or two-stage detectors like Faster R-CNN, R-FCN and FPN are usually trying to directly finetune from ImageNet pre-trained models designed for image classification. There has been little work discussing on the backbone feature extractor specifically designed for the object detection. More importantly, there are several differences between the tasks of image classification and object detection. 1. Recent object detectors like FPN and RetinaNet usually involve extra stages against the task of image classification to handle the objects with various scales. 2. Object detection not only needs to recognize the category of the object instances but also spatially locate the position. Large downsampling factor brings large valid receptive field, which is good for image classification but compromises the object location ability. Due to the gap between the image classification and object detection, we propose DetNet in this paper, which is a novel backbone network specifically designed for object detection. Moreover, DetNet includes the extra stages against traditional backbone network for image classification, while maintains high spatial resolution in deeper layers. Without any bells and whistles, state-of-the-art results have been obtained for both object detection and instance segmentation on the MSCOCO benchmark based on our DetNet~(4.8G FLOPs) backbone. The code will be released for the reproduction.
We introduce a generic framework that reduces the computational cost of object detection while retaining accuracy for scenarios where objects with varied sizes appear in high resolution images. Detection progresses in a coarse-to-fine manner, first on a down-sampled version of the image and then on a sequence of higher resolution regions identified as likely to improve the detection accuracy. Built upon reinforcement learning, our approach consists of a model (R-net) that uses coarse detection results to predict the potential accuracy gain for analyzing a region at a higher resolution and another model (Q-net) that sequentially selects regions to zoom in. Experiments on the Caltech Pedestrians dataset show that our approach reduces the number of processed pixels by over 50% without a drop in detection accuracy. The merits of our approach become more significant on a high resolution test set collected from YFCC100M dataset, where our approach maintains high detection performance while reducing the number of processed pixels by about 70% and the detection time by over 50%.
Object detection is a major challenge in computer vision, involving both object classification and object localization within a scene. While deep neural networks have been shown in recent years to yield very powerful techniques for tackling the challenge of object detection, one of the biggest challenges with enabling such object detection networks for widespread deployment on embedded devices is high computational and memory requirements. Recently, there has been an increasing focus in exploring small deep neural network architectures for object detection that are more suitable for embedded devices, such as Tiny YOLO and SqueezeDet. Inspired by the efficiency of the Fire microarchitecture introduced in SqueezeNet and the object detection performance of the single-shot detection macroarchitecture introduced in SSD, this paper introduces Tiny SSD, a single-shot detection deep convolutional neural network for real-time embedded object detection that is composed of a highly optimized, non-uniform Fire sub-network stack and a non-uniform sub-network stack of highly optimized SSD-based auxiliary convolutional feature layers designed specifically to minimize model size while maintaining object detection performance. The resulting Tiny SSD possess a model size of 2.3MB (~26X smaller than Tiny YOLO) while still achieving an mAP of 61.3% on VOC 2007 (~4.2% higher than Tiny YOLO). These experimental results show that very small deep neural network architectures can be designed for real-time object detection that are well-suited for embedded scenarios.