Pyramid is a small, fast, down-to-earth Python web application development framework.


Avoiding hybrid obstacles in unknown scenarios with an efficient flight strategy is a key challenge for unmanned aerial vehicle applications. In this paper, we introduce a more robust technique to distinguish and track dynamic obstacles from static ones with only point cloud input. Then, to achieve dynamic avoidance, we propose the forbidden pyramids method to solve the desired vehicle velocity with an efficient sampling-based method in iteration. The motion primitives are generated by solving a nonlinear optimization problem with the constraint of desired velocity and the waypoint. Furthermore, we present several techniques to deal with the position estimation error for close objects, the error for deformable objects, and the time gap between different submodules. The proposed approach is implemented to run onboard in real-time and validated extensively in simulation and hardware tests, demonstrating our superiority in tracking robustness, energy cost, and calculating time.