Graph neural networks provide a powerful toolkit for embedding real-world graphs into low-dimensional spaces according to specific tasks. Up to now, there have been several surveys on this topic. However, they usually lay emphasis on different angles so that the readers can not see a panorama of the graph neural networks. This survey aims to overcome this limitation, and provide a comprehensive review on the graph neural networks. First of all, we provide a novel taxonomy for the graph neural networks, and then refer to up to 400 relevant literatures to show the panorama of the graph neural networks. All of them are classified into the corresponding categories. In order to drive the graph neural networks into a new stage, we summarize four future research directions so as to overcome the facing challenges. It is expected that more and more scholars can understand and exploit the graph neural networks, and use them in their research community.
Recently, there has been a rising surge of momentum for deep representation learning in hyperbolic spaces due to theirhigh capacity of modeling data like knowledge graphs or synonym hierarchies, possessing hierarchical structure. We refer to the model as hyperbolic deep neural network in this paper. Such a hyperbolic neural architecture potentially leads to drastically compact model withmuch more physical interpretability than its counterpart in Euclidean space. To stimulate future research, this paper presents acoherent and comprehensive review of the literature around the neural components in the construction of hyperbolic deep neuralnetworks, as well as the generalization of the leading deep approaches to the Hyperbolic space. It also presents current applicationsaround various machine learning tasks on several publicly available datasets, together with insightful observations and identifying openquestions and promising future directions.
Dynamic neural network is an emerging research topic in deep learning. Compared to static models which have fixed computational graphs and parameters at the inference stage, dynamic networks can adapt their structures or parameters to different inputs, leading to notable advantages in terms of accuracy, computational efficiency, adaptiveness, etc. In this survey, we comprehensively review this rapidly developing area by dividing dynamic networks into three main categories: 1) instance-wise dynamic models that process each instance with data-dependent architectures or parameters; 2) spatial-wise dynamic networks that conduct adaptive computation with respect to different spatial locations of image data and 3) temporal-wise dynamic models that perform adaptive inference along the temporal dimension for sequential data such as videos and texts. The important research problems of dynamic networks, e.g., architecture design, decision making scheme, optimization technique and applications, are reviewed systematically. Finally, we discuss the open problems in this field together with interesting future research directions.
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have been extensively studied in the past few years. Arguably their most significant impact has been in the area of computer vision where great advances have been made in challenges such as plausible image generation, image-to-image translation, facial attribute manipulation and similar domains. Despite the significant successes achieved to date, applying GANs to real-world problems still poses significant challenges, three of which we focus on here. These are: (1) the generation of high quality images, (2) diversity of image generation, and (3) stable training. Focusing on the degree to which popular GAN technologies have made progress against these challenges, we provide a detailed review of the state of the art in GAN-related research in the published scientific literature. We further structure this review through a convenient taxonomy we have adopted based on variations in GAN architectures and loss functions. While several reviews for GANs have been presented to date, none have considered the status of this field based on their progress towards addressing practical challenges relevant to computer vision. Accordingly, we review and critically discuss the most popular architecture-variant, and loss-variant GANs, for tackling these challenges. Our objective is to provide an overview as well as a critical analysis of the status of GAN research in terms of relevant progress towards important computer vision application requirements. As we do this we also discuss the most compelling applications in computer vision in which GANs have demonstrated considerable success along with some suggestions for future research directions. Code related to GAN-variants studied in this work is summarized on https://github.com/sheqi/GAN_Review.
Knowledge Graphs are increasingly becoming popular for a variety of downstream tasks like Question Answering and Information Retrieval. However, the Knowledge Graphs are often incomplete, thus leading to poor performance. As a result, there has been a lot of interest in the task of Knowledge Base Completion. More recently, Graph Neural Networks have been used to capture structural information inherently stored in these Knowledge Graphs and have been shown to achieve SOTA performance across a variety of datasets. In this survey, we understand the various strengths and weaknesses of the proposed methodology and try to find new exciting research problems in this area that require further investigation.
Text-to-image synthesis refers to computational methods which translate human written textual descriptions, in the form of keywords or sentences, into images with similar semantic meaning to the text. In earlier research, image synthesis relied mainly on word to image correlation analysis combined with supervised methods to find best alignment of the visual content matching to the text. Recent progress in deep learning (DL) has brought a new set of unsupervised deep learning methods, particularly deep generative models which are able to generate realistic visual images using suitably trained neural network models. In this paper, we review the most recent development in the text-to-image synthesis research domain. Our survey first introduces image synthesis and its challenges, and then reviews key concepts such as generative adversarial networks (GANs) and deep convolutional encoder-decoder neural networks (DCNN). After that, we propose a taxonomy to summarize GAN based text-to-image synthesis into four major categories: Semantic Enhancement GANs, Resolution Enhancement GANs, Diversity Enhancement GANS, and Motion Enhancement GANs. We elaborate the main objective of each group, and further review typical GAN architectures in each group. The taxonomy and the review outline the techniques and the evolution of different approaches, and eventually provide a clear roadmap to summarize the list of contemporaneous solutions that utilize GANs and DCNNs to generate enthralling results in categories such as human faces, birds, flowers, room interiors, object reconstruction from edge maps (games) etc. The survey will conclude with a comparison of the proposed solutions, challenges that remain unresolved, and future developments in the text-to-image synthesis domain.
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have been extensively studied in the past few years. Arguably the revolutionary techniques are in the area of computer vision such as plausible image generation, image to image translation, facial attribute manipulation and similar domains. Despite the significant success achieved in computer vision field, applying GANs over real-world problems still have three main challenges: (1) High quality image generation; (2) Diverse image generation; and (3) Stable training. Considering numerous GAN-related research in the literature, we provide a study on the architecture-variants and loss-variants, which are proposed to handle these three challenges from two perspectives. We propose loss and architecture-variants for classifying most popular GANs, and discuss the potential improvements with focusing on these two aspects. While several reviews for GANs have been presented, there is no work focusing on the review of GAN-variants based on handling challenges mentioned above. In this paper, we review and critically discuss 7 architecture-variant GANs and 9 loss-variant GANs for remedying those three challenges. The objective of this review is to provide an insight on the footprint that current GANs research focuses on the performance improvement. Code related to GAN-variants studied in this work is summarized on https://github.com/sheqi/GAN_Review.
Deep learning has revolutionized many machine learning tasks in recent years, ranging from image classification and video processing to speech recognition and natural language understanding. The data in these tasks are typically represented in the Euclidean space. However, there is an increasing number of applications where data are generated from non-Euclidean domains and are represented as graphs with complex relationships and interdependency between objects. The complexity of graph data has imposed significant challenges on existing machine learning algorithms. Recently, many studies on extending deep learning approaches for graph data have emerged. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive overview of graph neural networks (GNNs) in data mining and machine learning fields. We propose a new taxonomy to divide the state-of-the-art graph neural networks into different categories. With a focus on graph convolutional networks, we review alternative architectures that have recently been developed; these learning paradigms include graph attention networks, graph autoencoders, graph generative networks, and graph spatial-temporal networks. We further discuss the applications of graph neural networks across various domains and summarize the open source codes and benchmarks of the existing algorithms on different learning tasks. Finally, we propose potential research directions in this fast-growing field.
The field of natural language processing has seen impressive progress in recent years, with neural network models replacing many of the traditional systems. A plethora of new models have been proposed, many of which are thought to be opaque compared to their feature-rich counterparts. This has led researchers to analyze, interpret, and evaluate neural networks in novel and more fine-grained ways. In this survey paper, we review analysis methods in neural language processing, categorize them according to prominent research trends, highlight existing limitations, and point to potential directions for future work.
Deep learning has been shown successful in a number of domains, ranging from acoustics, images to natural language processing. However, applying deep learning to the ubiquitous graph data is non-trivial because of the unique characteristics of graphs. Recently, a significant amount of research efforts have been devoted to this area, greatly advancing graph analyzing techniques. In this survey, we comprehensively review different kinds of deep learning methods applied to graphs. We divide existing methods into three main categories: semi-supervised methods including Graph Neural Networks and Graph Convolutional Networks, unsupervised methods including Graph Autoencoders, and recent advancements including Graph Recurrent Neural Networks and Graph Reinforcement Learning. We then provide a comprehensive overview of these methods in a systematic manner following their history of developments. We also analyze the differences of these methods and how to composite different architectures. Finally, we briefly outline their applications and discuss potential future directions.
The era of big data provides researchers with convenient access to copious data. However, people often have little knowledge about it. The increasing prevalence of big data is challenging the traditional methods of learning causality because they are developed for the cases with limited amount of data and solid prior causal knowledge. This survey aims to close the gap between big data and learning causality with a comprehensive and structured review of traditional and frontier methods and a discussion about some open problems of learning causality. We begin with preliminaries of learning causality. Then we categorize and revisit methods of learning causality for the typical problems and data types. After that, we discuss the connections between learning causality and machine learning. At the end, some open problems are presented to show the great potential of learning causality with data.