计算机视觉是一门研究如何使机器“看”的科学,更进一步的说,就是是指用摄影机和电脑代替人眼对目标进行识别、跟踪和测量等机器视觉,并进一步做图形处理,使电脑处理成为更适合人眼观察或传送给仪器检测的图像。作为一个科学学科,计算机视觉研究相关的理论和技术,试图建立能够从图像或者多维数据中获取‘信息’的人工智能系统。

The structural network of the brain, or structural connectome, can be represented by fiber bundles generated by a variety of tractography methods. While such methods give qualitative insights into brain structure, there is controversy over whether they can provide quantitative information, especially at the population level. In order to enable population-level statistical analysis of the structural connectome, we propose representing a connectome as a Riemannian metric, which is a point on an infinite-dimensional manifold. We equip this manifold with the Ebin metric, a natural metric structure for this space, to get a Riemannian manifold along with its associated geometric properties. We then use this Riemannian framework to apply object-oriented statistical analysis to define an atlas as the Fr\'echet mean of a population of Riemannian metrics. This formulation ties into the existing framework for diffeomorphic construction of image atlases, allowing us to construct a multimodal atlas by simultaneously integrating complementary white matter structure details from DWMRI and cortical details from T1-weighted MRI. We illustrate our framework with 2D data examples of connectome registration and atlas formation. Finally, we build an example 3D multimodal atlas using T1 images and connectomes derived from diffusion tensors estimated from a subset of subjects from the Human Connectome Project.

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Deep learning-based image retrieval has been emphasized in computer vision. Representation embedding extracted by deep neural networks (DNNs) not only aims at containing semantic information of the image, but also can manage large-scale image retrieval tasks. In this work, we propose a deep learning-based image retrieval approach using homography transformation augmented contrastive learning to perform large-scale synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image search tasks. Moreover, we propose a training method for the DNNs induced by contrastive learning that does not require any labeling procedure. This may enable tractability of large-scale datasets with relative ease. Finally, we verify the performance of the proposed method by conducting experiments on the polarimetric SAR image datasets.

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Deep neural networks for automatic image colorization often suffer from the color-bleeding artifact, a problematic color spreading near the boundaries between adjacent objects. Such color-bleeding artifacts debase the reality of generated outputs, limiting the applicability of colorization models in practice. Although previous approaches have attempted to address this problem in an automatic manner, they tend to work only in limited cases where a high contrast of gray-scale values are given in an input image. Alternatively, leveraging user interactions would be a promising approach for solving this color-breeding artifacts. In this paper, we propose a novel edge-enhancing network for the regions of interest via simple user scribbles indicating where to enhance. In addition, our method requires a minimal amount of effort from users for their satisfactory enhancement. Experimental results demonstrate that our interactive edge-enhancing approach effectively improves the color-bleeding artifacts compared to the existing baselines across various datasets.

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Several applications such as autonomous driving, augmented reality and virtual reality requires a precise prediction of the 3D human pose. Recently, a new problem was introduced in the field to predict the 3D human poses from an observed 2D poses. We propose Skeleton-Graph, a deep spatio-temporal graph CNN model that predicts the future 3D skeleton poses in a single pass from the 2D ones. Unlike prior works, Skeleton-Graph focuses on modeling the interaction between the skeleton joints by exploiting their spatial configuration. This is being achieved by formulating the problem as a graph structure while learning a suitable graph adjacency kernel. By the design, Skeleton-Graph predicts the future 3D poses without divergence on the long-term unlike prior works. We also introduce a new metric that measures the divergence of predictions on the long-term. Our results show an FDE improvement of at least 27% and an ADE of 4% on both the GTA-IM and PROX datasets respectively in comparison with prior works. Also, we are 88% and 93% less divergence on the long-term motion prediction in comparison with prior works on both GTA-IM and PROX datasets. https://github.com/abduallahmohamed/Skeleton-Graph.git

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Inspired by the success of transformer-based pre-training methods on natural language tasks and further computer vision tasks, researchers have begun to apply transformer to video processing. This survey aims to give a comprehensive overview on transformer-based pre-training methods for Video-Language learning. We first briefly introduce the transformer tructure as the background knowledge, including attention mechanism, position encoding etc. We then describe the typical paradigm of pre-training & fine-tuning on Video-Language processing in terms of proxy tasks, downstream tasks and commonly used video datasets. Next, we categorize transformer models into Single-Stream and Multi-Stream structures, highlight their innovations and compare their performances. Finally, we analyze and discuss the current challenges and possible future research directions for Video-Language pre-training.

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Few-shot classification aims at classifying categories of a novel task by learning from just a few (typically, 1 to 5) labelled examples. An effective approach to few-shot classification involves a prior model trained on a large-sample base domain, which is then finetuned over the novel few-shot task to yield generalizable representations. However, task-specific finetuning is prone to overfitting due to the lack of enough training examples. To alleviate this issue, we propose a new finetuning approach based on contrastive learning that reuses unlabelled examples from the base domain in the form of distractors. Unlike the nature of unlabelled data used in prior works, distractors belong to classes that do not overlap with the novel categories. We demonstrate for the first time that inclusion of such distractors can significantly boost few-shot generalization. Our technical novelty includes a stochastic pairing of examples sharing the same category in the few-shot task and a weighting term that controls the relative influence of task-specific negatives and distractors. An important aspect of our finetuning objective is that it is agnostic to distractor labels and hence applicable to various base domain settings. Compared to state-of-the-art approaches, our method shows accuracy gains of up to $12\%$ in cross-domain and up to $5\%$ in unsupervised prior-learning settings.

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Linguistic representations derived from text alone have been criticized for their lack of grounding, i.e., connecting words to their meanings in the physical world. Vision-and-Language (VL) models, trained jointly on text and image or video data, have been offered as a response to such criticisms. However, while VL pretraining has shown success on multimodal tasks such as visual question answering, it is not yet known how the internal linguistic representations themselves compare to their text-only counterparts. This paper compares the semantic representations learned via VL vs. text-only pretraining for two recent VL models using a suite of analyses (clustering, probing, and performance on a commonsense question answering task) in a language-only setting. We find that the multimodal models fail to significantly outperform the text-only variants, suggesting that future work is required if multimodal pretraining is to be pursued as a means of improving NLP in general.

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Convolutional Neural Networks have demonstrated dermatologist-level performance in the classification of melanoma and other skin lesions, but prediction irregularities due to biases seen within the training data are an issue that should be addressed before widespread deployment is possible. In this work, we robustly remove bias and spurious variation from an automated melanoma classification pipeline using two leading bias unlearning techniques. We show that the biases introduced by surgical markings and rulers presented in previous studies can be reasonably mitigated using these bias removal methods. We also demonstrate the generalisation benefits of unlearning spurious variation relating to the imaging instrument used to capture lesion images. Contributions of this work include the application of different debiasing techniques for artefact bias removal and the concept of instrument bias unlearning for domain generalisation in melanoma detection. Our experimental results provide evidence that the effects of each of the aforementioned biases are notably reduced, with different debiasing techniques excelling at different tasks.

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Deep learning (DL) has shown great success in many human-related tasks, which has led to its adoption in many computer vision based applications, such as security surveillance systems, autonomous vehicles and healthcare. Such safety-critical applications have to draw their path to success deployment once they have the capability to overcome safety-critical challenges. Among these challenges are the defense against or/and the detection of the adversarial examples (AEs). Adversaries can carefully craft small, often imperceptible, noise called perturbations to be added to the clean image to generate the AE. The aim of AE is to fool the DL model which makes it a potential risk for DL applications. Many test-time evasion attacks and countermeasures,i.e., defense or detection methods, are proposed in the literature. Moreover, few reviews and surveys were published and theoretically showed the taxonomy of the threats and the countermeasure methods with little focus in AE detection methods. In this paper, we focus on image classification tasks and attempt to provide a survey for detection methods of test-time evasion attacks on neural network classifiers. A detailed discussion for such methods is provided with experimental results for eight state-of-the-art detectors under different scenarios on four datasets. We also provide potential challenges and future perspectives for this research direction.

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State-of-the-art methods for self-supervised learning (SSL) build representations by maximizing the similarity between different transformed "views" of a sample. Without sufficient diversity in the transformations used to create views, however, it can be difficult to overcome nuisance variables in the data and build rich representations. This motivates the use of the dataset itself to find similar, yet distinct, samples to serve as views for one another. In this paper, we introduce Mine Your Own vieW (MYOW), a new approach for self-supervised learning that looks within the dataset to define diverse targets for prediction. The idea behind our approach is to actively mine views, finding samples that are neighbors in the representation space of the network, and then predict, from one sample's latent representation, the representation of a nearby sample. After showing the promise of MYOW on benchmarks used in computer vision, we highlight the power of this idea in a novel application in neuroscience where SSL has yet to be applied. When tested on multi-unit neural recordings, we find that MYOW outperforms other self-supervised approaches in all examples (in some cases by more than 10%), and often surpasses the supervised baseline. With MYOW, we show that it is possible to harness the diversity of the data to build rich views and leverage self-supervision in new domains where augmentations are limited or unknown.

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Modern cameras are equipped with a wide array of sensors that enable recording the geospatial context of an image. Taking advantage of this, we explore depth estimation under the assumption that the camera is geocalibrated, a problem we refer to as geo-enabled depth estimation. Our key insight is that if capture location is known, the corresponding overhead viewpoint offers a valuable resource for understanding the scale of the scene. We propose an end-to-end architecture for depth estimation that uses geospatial context to infer a synthetic ground-level depth map from a co-located overhead image, then fuses it inside of an encoder/decoder style segmentation network. To support evaluation of our methods, we extend a recently released dataset with overhead imagery and corresponding height maps. Results demonstrate that integrating geospatial context significantly reduces error compared to baselines, both at close ranges and when evaluating at much larger distances than existing benchmarks consider.

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Convolutional neural networks (CNN) are known to be an effective means to detect and analyze images. Their power is essentially based on the ability to extract out images common features. There exist, however, images involving unique, irregular features or details. Such is a collection of unusual children drawings reflecting the kids imagination and individuality. These drawings were analyzed by means of a CNN constructed by means of Keras-TensorFlow. The same problem - on a significantly higher level - was solved with newly developed family of networks called IgNet that is described in this paper. It proved able to learn by 100 % all the categorical characteristics of the drawings. In the case of a regression task (learning the young artists ages) IgNet performed with an error of no more than 0.4 %. The principles are discussed of IgNet design that made it possible to reach such substantial results with rather simple network topology.

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Astrophysical processes such as feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei modify the properties and spatial distribution of dark matter, gas, and galaxies in a poorly understood way. This uncertainty is one of the main theoretical obstacles to extract information from cosmological surveys. We use 2,000 state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations from the CAMELS project spanning a wide variety of cosmological and astrophysical models and generate hundreds of thousands of 2-dimensional maps for 13 different fields: from dark matter to gas and stellar properties. We use these maps to train convolutional neural networks to extract the maximum amount of cosmological information while marginalizing over astrophysical effects at the field level. Although our maps only cover a small area of $(25~h^{-1}{\rm Mpc})^2$, and the different fields are contaminated by astrophysical effects in very different ways, our networks can infer the values of $\Omega_{\rm m}$ and $\sigma_8$ with a few percent level precision for most of the fields. We find that the marginalization performed by the network retains a wealth of cosmological information compared to a model trained on maps from gravity-only N-body simulations that are not contaminated by astrophysical effects. Finally, we train our networks on multifields -- 2D maps that contain several fields as different colors or channels -- and find that not only they can infer the value of all parameters with higher accuracy than networks trained on individual fields, but they can constrain the value of $\Omega_{\rm m}$ with higher accuracy than the maps from the N-body simulations.

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Making informed driving decisions requires reliable prediction of other vehicles' trajectories. In this paper, we present a novel learned multi-modal trajectory prediction architecture for automated driving. It achieves kinematically feasible predictions by casting the learning problem into the space of accelerations and steering angles -- by performing action-space prediction, we can leverage valuable model knowledge. Additionally, the dimensionality of the action manifold is lower than that of the state manifold, whose intrinsically correlated states are more difficult to capture in a learned manner. For the purpose of action-space prediction, we present the simple Feed-Forward Action-Space Prediction (FFW-ASP) architecture. Then, we build on this notion and introduce the novel Self-Supervised Action-Space Prediction (SSP-ASP) architecture that outputs future environment context features in addition to trajectories. A key element in the self-supervised architecture is that, based on an observed action history and past context features, future context features are predicted prior to future trajectories. The proposed methods are evaluated on real-world datasets containing urban intersections and roundabouts, and show accurate predictions, outperforming state-of-the-art for kinematically feasible predictions in several prediction metrics.

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