Recently, image-to-image translation has made significant progress in achieving both multi-label (\ie, translation conditioned on different labels) and multi-style (\ie, generation with diverse styles) tasks. However, due to the unexplored independence and exclusiveness in the labels, existing endeavors are defeated by involving uncontrolled manipulations to the translation results. In this paper, we propose Hierarchical Style Disentanglement (HiSD) to address this issue. Specifically, we organize the labels into a hierarchical tree structure, in which independent tags, exclusive attributes, and disentangled styles are allocated from top to bottom. Correspondingly, a new translation process is designed to adapt the above structure, in which the styles are identified for controllable translations. Both qualitative and quantitative results on the CelebA-HQ dataset verify the ability of the proposed HiSD. We hope our method will serve as a solid baseline and provide fresh insights with the hierarchically organized annotations for future research in image-to-image translation. The code has been released at https://github.com/imlixinyang/HiSD.
In this study, we devise a model that introduces two hierarchies into information entropy. The two hierarchies are the size of the region for which entropy is calculated and the size of the component that determines whether the structures in the image are integrated or not. And this model uses two indicators, hierarchical entropy and domain interaction. Both indicators increase or decrease due to the integration or fragmentation of the structure in the image. It aims to help people interpret and explain what the structure in an image looks like from two indicators that change with the size of the region and the component. First, we conduct experiments using images and qualitatively evaluate how the two indicators change. Next, we explain the relationship with the hidden structure of Vermeer's girl with a pearl earring using the change of hierarchical entropy. Finally, we clarify the relationship between the change of domain interaction and the appropriate segment result of the image by an experiment using a questionnaire.
Fashion is a complex social phenomenon. People follow fashion styles from demonstrations by experts or fashion icons. However, for machine agent, learning to imitate fashion experts from demonstrations can be challenging, especially for complex styles in environments with high-dimensional, multimodal observations. Most existing research regarding fashion outfit composition utilizes supervised learning methods to mimic the behaviors of style icons. These methods suffer from distribution shift: because the agent greedily imitates some given outfit demonstrations, it can drift away from one style to another styles given subtle differences. In this work, we propose an adversarial inverse reinforcement learning formulation to recover reward functions based on hierarchical multimodal representation (HM-AIRL) during the imitation process. The hierarchical joint representation can more comprehensively model the expert composited outfit demonstrations to recover the reward function. We demonstrate that the proposed HM-AIRL model is able to recover reward functions that are robust to changes in multimodal observations, enabling us to learn policies under significant variation between different styles.
Most conditional generation tasks expect diverse outputs given a single conditional context. However, conditional generative adversarial networks (cGANs) often focus on the prior conditional information and ignore the input noise vectors, which contribute to the output variations. Recent attempts to resolve the mode collapse issue for cGANs are usually task-specific and computationally expensive. In this work, we propose a simple yet effective regularization term to address the mode collapse issue for cGANs. The proposed method explicitly maximizes the ratio of the distance between generated images with respect to the corresponding latent codes, thus encouraging the generators to explore more minor modes during training. This mode seeking regularization term is readily applicable to various conditional generation tasks without imposing training overhead or modifying the original network structures. We validate the proposed algorithm on three conditional image synthesis tasks including categorical generation, image-to-image translation, and text-to-image synthesis with different baseline models. Both qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed regularization method for improving diversity without loss of quality.
Recently, Neural Architecture Search (NAS) has successfully identified neural network architectures that exceed human designed ones on large-scale image classification problems. In this paper, we study NAS for semantic image segmentation, an important computer vision task that assigns a semantic label to every pixel in an image. Existing works often focus on searching the repeatable cell structure, while hand-designing the outer network structure that controls the spatial resolution changes. This choice simplifies the search space, but becomes increasingly problematic for dense image prediction which exhibits a lot more network level architectural variations. Therefore, we propose to search the network level structure in addition to the cell level structure, which forms a hierarchical architecture search space. We present a network level search space that includes many popular designs, and develop a formulation that allows efficient gradient-based architecture search (3 P100 GPU days on Cityscapes images). We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on the challenging Cityscapes, PASCAL VOC 2012, and ADE20K datasets. Without any ImageNet pretraining, our architecture searched specifically for semantic image segmentation attains state-of-the-art performance.
Image-to-image translation aims to learn the mapping between two visual domains. There are two main challenges for many applications: 1) the lack of aligned training pairs and 2) multiple possible outputs from a single input image. In this work, we present an approach based on disentangled representation for producing diverse outputs without paired training images. To achieve diversity, we propose to embed images onto two spaces: a domain-invariant content space capturing shared information across domains and a domain-specific attribute space. Our model takes the encoded content features extracted from a given input and the attribute vectors sampled from the attribute space to produce diverse outputs at test time. To handle unpaired training data, we introduce a novel cross-cycle consistency loss based on disentangled representations. Qualitative results show that our model can generate diverse and realistic images on a wide range of tasks without paired training data. For quantitative comparisons, we measure realism with user study and diversity with a perceptual distance metric. We apply the proposed model to domain adaptation and show competitive performance when compared to the state-of-the-art on the MNIST-M and the LineMod datasets.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) can produce images of surprising complexity and realism, but are generally modeled to sample from a single latent source ignoring the explicit spatial interaction between multiple entities that could be present in a scene. Capturing such complex interactions between different objects in the world, including their relative scaling, spatial layout, occlusion, or viewpoint transformation is a challenging problem. In this work, we propose to model object composition in a GAN framework as a self-consistent composition-decomposition network. Our model is conditioned on the object images from their marginal distributions to generate a realistic image from their joint distribution by explicitly learning the possible interactions. We evaluate our model through qualitative experiments and user evaluations in both the scenarios when either paired or unpaired examples for the individual object images and the joint scenes are given during training. Our results reveal that the learned model captures potential interactions between the two object domains given as input to output new instances of composed scene at test time in a reasonable fashion.
Image-to-image translation tasks have been widely investigated with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) and dual learning. However, existing models lack the ability to control the translated results in the target domain and their results usually lack of diversity in the sense that a fixed image usually leads to (almost) deterministic translation result. In this paper, we study a new problem, conditional image-to-image translation, which is to translate an image from the source domain to the target domain conditioned on a given image in the target domain. It requires that the generated image should inherit some domain-specific features of the conditional image from the target domain. Therefore, changing the conditional image in the target domain will lead to diverse translation results for a fixed input image from the source domain, and therefore the conditional input image helps to control the translation results. We tackle this problem with unpaired data based on GANs and dual learning. We twist two conditional translation models (one translation from A domain to B domain, and the other one from B domain to A domain) together for inputs combination and reconstruction while preserving domain independent features. We carry out experiments on men's faces from-to women's faces translation and edges to shoes&bags translations. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Style transfer usually refers to the task of applying color and texture information from a specific style image to a given content image while preserving the structure of the latter. Here we tackle the more generic problem of semantic style transfer: given two unpaired collections of images, we aim to learn a mapping between the corpus-level style of each collection, while preserving semantic content shared across the two domains. We introduce XGAN ("Cross-GAN"), a dual adversarial autoencoder, which captures a shared representation of the common domain semantic content in an unsupervised way, while jointly learning the domain-to-domain image translations in both directions. We exploit ideas from the domain adaptation literature and define a semantic consistency loss which encourages the model to preserve semantics in the learned embedding space. We report promising qualitative results for the task of face-to-cartoon translation. The cartoon dataset we collected for this purpose is in the process of being released as a new benchmark for semantic style transfer.
A number of recent works have proposed attention models for Visual Question Answering (VQA) that generate spatial maps highlighting image regions relevant to answering the question. In this paper, we argue that in addition to modeling "where to look" or visual attention, it is equally important to model "what words to listen to" or question attention. We present a novel co-attention model for VQA that jointly reasons about image and question attention. In addition, our model reasons about the question (and consequently the image via the co-attention mechanism) in a hierarchical fashion via a novel 1-dimensional convolution neural networks (CNN). Our model improves the state-of-the-art on the VQA dataset from 60.3% to 60.5%, and from 61.6% to 63.3% on the COCO-QA dataset. By using ResNet, the performance is further improved to 62.1% for VQA and 65.4% for COCO-QA.