Visual tempo, which describes how fast an action goes, has shown its potential in supervised action recognition. In this work, we demonstrate that visual tempo can also serve as a self-supervision signal for video representation learning. We propose to maximize the mutual information between representations of slow and fast videos via hierarchical contrastive learning (VTHCL). Specifically, by sampling the same instance at slow and fast frame rates respectively, we can obtain slow and fast video frames which share the same semantics but contain different visual tempos. Video representations learned from VTHCL achieve the competitive performances under the self-supervision evaluation protocol for action recognition on UCF-101 (82.1\%) and HMDB-51 (49.2\%). Moreover, comprehensive experiments suggest that the learned representations are generalized well to other downstream tasks including action detection on AVA and action anticipation on Epic-Kitchen. Finally, we propose Instance Correspondence Map (ICM) to visualize the shared semantics captured by contrastive learning.
In this paper, we focus on the self-supervised learning of visual correspondence using unlabeled videos in the wild. Our method simultaneously considers intra- and inter-video representation associations for reliable correspondence estimation. The intra-video learning transforms the image contents across frames within a single video via the frame pair-wise affinity. To obtain the discriminative representation for instance-level separation, we go beyond the intra-video analysis and construct the inter-video affinity to facilitate the contrastive transformation across different videos. By forcing the transformation consistency between intra- and inter-video levels, the fine-grained correspondence associations are well preserved and the instance-level feature discrimination is effectively reinforced. Our simple framework outperforms the recent self-supervised correspondence methods on a range of visual tasks including video object tracking (VOT), video object segmentation (VOS), pose keypoint tracking, etc. It is worth mentioning that our method also surpasses the fully-supervised affinity representation (e.g., ResNet) and performs competitively against the recent fully-supervised algorithms designed for the specific tasks (e.g., VOT and VOS).
Visual and audio modalities are highly correlated, yet they contain different information. Their strong correlation makes it possible to predict the semantics of one from the other with good accuracy. Their intrinsic differences make cross-modal prediction a potentially more rewarding pretext task for self-supervised learning of video and audio representations compared to within-modality learning. Based on this intuition, we propose Cross-Modal Deep Clustering (XDC), a novel self-supervised method that leverages unsupervised clustering in one modality (e.g., audio) as a supervisory signal for the other modality (e.g., video). This cross-modal supervision helps XDC utilize the semantic correlation and the differences between the two modalities. Our experiments show that XDC outperforms single-modality clustering and other multi-modal variants. XDC achieves state-of-the-art accuracy among self-supervised methods on multiple video and audio benchmarks. Most importantly, our video model pretrained on large-scale unlabeled data significantly outperforms the same model pretrained with full-supervision on ImageNet and Kinetics for action recognition on HMDB51 and UCF101. To the best of our knowledge, XDC is the first self-supervised learning method that outperforms large-scale fully-supervised pretraining for action recognition on the same architecture.
We present a new method to learn video representations from large-scale unlabeled video data. Ideally, this representation will be generic and transferable, directly usable for new tasks such as action recognition and zero or few-shot learning. We formulate unsupervised representation learning as a multi-modal, multi-task learning problem, where the representations are shared across different modalities via distillation. Further, we introduce the concept of loss function evolution by using an evolutionary search algorithm to automatically find optimal combination of loss functions capturing many (self-supervised) tasks and modalities. Thirdly, we propose an unsupervised representation evaluation metric using distribution matching to a large unlabeled dataset as a prior constraint, based on Zipf's law. This unsupervised constraint, which is not guided by any labeling, produces similar results to weakly-supervised, task-specific ones. The proposed unsupervised representation learning results in a single RGB network and outperforms previous methods. Notably, it is also more effective than several label-based methods (e.g., ImageNet), with the exception of large, fully labeled video datasets.
This paper presents SimCLR: a simple framework for contrastive learning of visual representations. We simplify recently proposed contrastive self-supervised learning algorithms without requiring specialized architectures or a memory bank. In order to understand what enables the contrastive prediction tasks to learn useful representations, we systematically study the major components of our framework. We show that (1) composition of data augmentations plays a critical role in defining effective predictive tasks, (2) introducing a learnable nonlinear transformation between the representation and the contrastive loss substantially improves the quality of the learned representations, and (3) contrastive learning benefits from larger batch sizes and more training steps compared to supervised learning. By combining these findings, we are able to considerably outperform previous methods for self-supervised and semi-supervised learning on ImageNet. A linear classifier trained on self-supervised representations learned by SimCLR achieves 76.5% top-1 accuracy, which is a 7% relative improvement over previous state-of-the-art, matching the performance of a supervised ResNet-50. When fine-tuned on only 1% of the labels, we achieve 85.8% top-5 accuracy, outperforming AlexNet with 100X fewer labels.
We present SlowFast networks for video recognition. Our model involves (i) a Slow pathway, operating at low frame rate, to capture spatial semantics, and (ii) a Fast pathway, operating at high frame rate, to capture motion at fine temporal resolution. The Fast pathway can be made very lightweight by reducing its channel capacity, yet can learn useful temporal information for video recognition. Our models achieve strong performance for both action classification and detection in video, and large improvements are pin-pointed as contributions by our SlowFast concept. We report 79.0% accuracy on the Kinetics dataset without using any pre-training, largely surpassing the previous best results of this kind. On AVA action detection we achieve a new state-of-the-art of 28.3 mAP. Code will be made publicly available.
Applying image processing algorithms independently to each frame of a video often leads to undesired inconsistent results over time. Developing temporally consistent video-based extensions, however, requires domain knowledge for individual tasks and is unable to generalize to other applications. In this paper, we present an efficient end-to-end approach based on deep recurrent network for enforcing temporal consistency in a video. Our method takes the original unprocessed and per-frame processed videos as inputs to produce a temporally consistent video. Consequently, our approach is agnostic to specific image processing algorithms applied on the original video. We train the proposed network by minimizing both short-term and long-term temporal losses as well as the perceptual loss to strike a balance between temporal stability and perceptual similarity with the processed frames. At test time, our model does not require computing optical flow and thus achieves real-time speed even for high-resolution videos. We show that our single model can handle multiple and unseen tasks, including but not limited to artistic style transfer, enhancement, colorization, image-to-image translation and intrinsic image decomposition. Extensive objective evaluation and subject study demonstrate that the proposed approach performs favorably against the state-of-the-art methods on various types of videos.
Video captioning is the task of automatically generating a textual description of the actions in a video. Although previous work (e.g. sequence-to-sequence model) has shown promising results in abstracting a coarse description of a short video, it is still very challenging to caption a video containing multiple fine-grained actions with a detailed description. This paper aims to address the challenge by proposing a novel hierarchical reinforcement learning framework for video captioning, where a high-level Manager module learns to design sub-goals and a low-level Worker module recognizes the primitive actions to fulfill the sub-goal. With this compositional framework to reinforce video captioning at different levels, our approach significantly outperforms all the baseline methods on a newly introduced large-scale dataset for fine-grained video captioning. Furthermore, our non-ensemble model has already achieved the state-of-the-art results on the widely-used MSR-VTT dataset.
This paper reviews recent studies in understanding neural-network representations and learning neural networks with interpretable/disentangled middle-layer representations. Although deep neural networks have exhibited superior performance in various tasks, the interpretability is always the Achilles' heel of deep neural networks. At present, deep neural networks obtain high discrimination power at the cost of low interpretability of their black-box representations. We believe that high model interpretability may help people to break several bottlenecks of deep learning, e.g., learning from very few annotations, learning via human-computer communications at the semantic level, and semantically debugging network representations. We focus on convolutional neural networks (CNNs), and we revisit the visualization of CNN representations, methods of diagnosing representations of pre-trained CNNs, approaches for disentangling pre-trained CNN representations, learning of CNNs with disentangled representations, and middle-to-end learning based on model interpretability. Finally, we discuss prospective trends in explainable artificial intelligence.
The work in this paper is driven by the question how to exploit the temporal cues available in videos for their accurate classification, and for human action recognition in particular? Thus far, the vision community has focused on spatio-temporal approaches with fixed temporal convolution kernel depths. We introduce a new temporal layer that models variable temporal convolution kernel depths. We embed this new temporal layer in our proposed 3D CNN. We extend the DenseNet architecture - which normally is 2D - with 3D filters and pooling kernels. We name our proposed video convolutional network `Temporal 3D ConvNet'~(T3D) and its new temporal layer `Temporal Transition Layer'~(TTL). Our experiments show that T3D outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods on the HMDB51, UCF101 and Kinetics datasets. The other issue in training 3D ConvNets is about training them from scratch with a huge labeled dataset to get a reasonable performance. So the knowledge learned in 2D ConvNets is completely ignored. Another contribution in this work is a simple and effective technique to transfer knowledge from a pre-trained 2D CNN to a randomly initialized 3D CNN for a stable weight initialization. This allows us to significantly reduce the number of training samples for 3D CNNs. Thus, by finetuning this network, we beat the performance of generic and recent methods in 3D CNNs, which were trained on large video datasets, e.g. Sports-1M, and finetuned on the target datasets, e.g. HMDB51/UCF101. The T3D codes will be released