The work in this paper is driven by the question how to exploit the temporal cues available in videos for their accurate classification, and for human action recognition in particular? Thus far, the vision community has focused on spatio-temporal approaches with fixed temporal convolution kernel depths. We introduce a new temporal layer that models variable temporal convolution kernel depths. We embed this new temporal layer in our proposed 3D CNN. We extend the DenseNet architecture - which normally is 2D - with 3D filters and pooling kernels. We name our proposed video convolutional network Temporal 3D ConvNet'~(T3D) and its new temporal layer Temporal Transition Layer'~(TTL). Our experiments show that T3D outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods on the HMDB51, UCF101 and Kinetics datasets. The other issue in training 3D ConvNets is about training them from scratch with a huge labeled dataset to get a reasonable performance. So the knowledge learned in 2D ConvNets is completely ignored. Another contribution in this work is a simple and effective technique to transfer knowledge from a pre-trained 2D CNN to a randomly initialized 3D CNN for a stable weight initialization. This allows us to significantly reduce the number of training samples for 3D CNNs. Thus, by finetuning this network, we beat the performance of generic and recent methods in 3D CNNs, which were trained on large video datasets, e.g. Sports-1M, and finetuned on the target datasets, e.g. HMDB51/UCF101. The T3D codes will be released

### 相关内容

3D是英文“Three Dimensions”的简称，中文是指三维、三个维度、三个坐标，即有长、有宽、有高，换句话说，就是立体的，是相对于只有长和宽的平面（2D）而言。

Few-shot image classification aims to classify unseen classes with limited labeled samples. Recent works benefit from the meta-learning process with episodic tasks and can fast adapt to class from training to testing. Due to the limited number of samples for each task, the initial embedding network for meta learning becomes an essential component and can largely affects the performance in practice. To this end, many pre-trained methods have been proposed, and most of them are trained in supervised way with limited transfer ability for unseen classes. In this paper, we proposed to train a more generalized embedding network with self-supervised learning (SSL) which can provide slow and robust representation for downstream tasks by learning from the data itself. We evaluate our work by extensive comparisons with previous baseline methods on two few-shot classification datasets ({\em i.e.,} MiniImageNet and CUB). Based on the evaluation results, the proposed method achieves significantly better performance, i.e., improve 1-shot and 5-shot tasks by nearly \textbf{3\%} and \textbf{4\%} on MiniImageNet, by nearly \textbf{9\%} and \textbf{3\%} on CUB. Moreover, the proposed method can gain the improvement of (\textbf{15\%}, \textbf{13\%}) on MiniImageNet and (\textbf{15\%}, \textbf{8\%}) on CUB by pretraining using more unlabeled data. Our code will be available at \hyperref[https://github.com/phecy/SSL-FEW-SHOT.]{https://github.com/phecy/ssl-few-shot.}

Recently, much advance has been made in image captioning, and an encoder-decoder framework has achieved outstanding performance for this task. In this paper, we propose an extension of the encoder-decoder framework by adding a component called guiding network. The guiding network models the attribute properties of input images, and its output is leveraged to compose the input of the decoder at each time step. The guiding network can be plugged into the current encoder-decoder framework and trained in an end-to-end manner. Hence, the guiding vector can be adaptively learned according to the signal from the decoder, making itself to embed information from both image and language. Additionally, discriminative supervision can be employed to further improve the quality of guidance. The advantages of our proposed approach are verified by experiments carried out on the MS COCO dataset.

Video captioning is the task of automatically generating a textual description of the actions in a video. Although previous work (e.g. sequence-to-sequence model) has shown promising results in abstracting a coarse description of a short video, it is still very challenging to caption a video containing multiple fine-grained actions with a detailed description. This paper aims to address the challenge by proposing a novel hierarchical reinforcement learning framework for video captioning, where a high-level Manager module learns to design sub-goals and a low-level Worker module recognizes the primitive actions to fulfill the sub-goal. With this compositional framework to reinforce video captioning at different levels, our approach significantly outperforms all the baseline methods on a newly introduced large-scale dataset for fine-grained video captioning. Furthermore, our non-ensemble model has already achieved the state-of-the-art results on the widely-used MSR-VTT dataset.

A vexing problem in artificial intelligence is reasoning about events that occur in complex, changing visual stimuli such as in video analysis or game play. Inspired by a rich tradition of visual reasoning and memory in cognitive psychology and neuroscience, we developed an artificial, configurable visual question and answer dataset (COG) to parallel experiments in humans and animals. COG is much simpler than the general problem of video analysis, yet it addresses many of the problems relating to visual and logical reasoning and memory -- problems that remain challenging for modern deep learning architectures. We additionally propose a deep learning architecture that performs competitively on other diagnostic VQA datasets (i.e. CLEVR) as well as easy settings of the COG dataset. However, several settings of COG result in datasets that are progressively more challenging to learn. After training, the network can zero-shot generalize to many new tasks. Preliminary analyses of the network architectures trained on COG demonstrate that the network accomplishes the task in a manner interpretable to humans.

In this paper, a novel video classification methodology is presented that aims to recognize different categories of third-person videos efficiently. The idea is to keep track of motion in videos by following optical flow elements over time. To classify the resulted motion time series efficiently, the idea is letting the machine to learn temporal features along the time dimension. This is done by training a multi-channel one dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (1D-CNN). Since CNNs represent the input data hierarchically, high level features are obtained by further processing of features in lower level layers. As a result, in the case of time series, long-term temporal features are extracted from short-term ones. Besides, the superiority of the proposed method over most of the deep-learning based approaches is that we only try to learn representative temporal features along the time dimension. This reduces the number of learning parameters significantly which results in trainability of our method on even smaller datasets. It is illustrated that the proposed method could reach state-of-the-art results on two public datasets UCF11 and jHMDB with the aid of a more efficient feature vector representation.

Current methods for video analysis often extract frame-level features using pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Such features are then aggregated over time e.g., by simple temporal averaging or more sophisticated recurrent neural networks such as long short-term memory (LSTM) or gated recurrent units (GRU). In this work we revise existing video representations and study alternative methods for temporal aggregation. We first explore clustering-based aggregation layers and propose a two-stream architecture aggregating audio and visual features. We then introduce a learnable non-linear unit, named Context Gating, aiming to model interdependencies among network activations. Our experimental results show the advantage of both improvements for the task of video classification. In particular, we evaluate our method on the large-scale multi-modal Youtube-8M v2 dataset and outperform all other methods in the Youtube 8M Large-Scale Video Understanding challenge.

Accelerated by the tremendous increase in Internet bandwidth and storage space, video data has been generated, published and spread explosively, becoming an indispensable part of today's big data. In this paper, we focus on reviewing two lines of research aiming to stimulate the comprehension of videos with deep learning: video classification and video captioning. While video classification concentrates on automatically labeling video clips based on their semantic contents like human actions or complex events, video captioning attempts to generate a complete and natural sentence, enriching the single label as in video classification, to capture the most informative dynamics in videos. In addition, we also provide a review of popular benchmarks and competitions, which are critical for evaluating the technical progress of this vibrant field.

In this work, we present a method for tracking and learning the dynamics of all objects in a large scale robot environment. A mobile robot patrols the environment and visits the different locations one by one. Movable objects are discovered by change detection, and tracked throughout the robot deployment. For tracking, we extend the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter of previous work with birth and death processes, enabling the method to handle an arbitrary number of objects. Target births and associations are sampled using Gibbs sampling. The parameters of the system are then learnt using the Expectation Maximization algorithm in an unsupervised fashion. The system therefore enables learning of the dynamics of one particular environment, and of its objects. The algorithm is evaluated on data collected autonomously by a mobile robot in an office environment during a real-world deployment. We show that the algorithm automatically identifies and tracks the moving objects within 3D maps and infers plausible dynamics models, significantly decreasing the modeling bias of our previous work. The proposed method represents an improvement over previous methods for environment dynamics learning as it allows for learning of fine grained processes.

Recently, deep learning has achieved very promising results in visual object tracking. Deep neural networks in existing tracking methods require a lot of training data to learn a large number of parameters. However, training data is not sufficient for visual object tracking as annotations of a target object are only available in the first frame of a test sequence. In this paper, we propose to learn hierarchical features for visual object tracking by using tree structure based Recursive Neural Networks (RNN), which have fewer parameters than other deep neural networks, e.g. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). First, we learn RNN parameters to discriminate between the target object and background in the first frame of a test sequence. Tree structure over local patches of an exemplar region is randomly generated by using a bottom-up greedy search strategy. Given the learned RNN parameters, we create two dictionaries regarding target regions and corresponding local patches based on the learned hierarchical features from both top and leaf nodes of multiple random trees. In each of the subsequent frames, we conduct sparse dictionary coding on all candidates to select the best candidate as the new target location. In addition, we online update two dictionaries to handle appearance changes of target objects. Experimental results demonstrate that our feature learning algorithm can significantly improve tracking performance on benchmark datasets.

Recently, substantial research effort has focused on how to apply CNNs or RNNs to better extract temporal patterns from videos, so as to improve the accuracy of video classification. In this paper, however, we show that temporal information, especially longer-term patterns, may not be necessary to achieve competitive results on common video classification datasets. We investigate the potential of a purely attention based local feature integration. Accounting for the characteristics of such features in video classification, we propose a local feature integration framework based on attention clusters, and introduce a shifting operation to capture more diverse signals. We carefully analyze and compare the effect of different attention mechanisms, cluster sizes, and the use of the shifting operation, and also investigate the combination of attention clusters for multimodal integration. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework on three real-world video classification datasets. Our model achieves competitive results across all of these. In particular, on the large-scale Kinetics dataset, our framework obtains an excellent single model accuracy of 79.4% in terms of the top-1 and 94.0% in terms of the top-5 accuracy on the validation set. The attention clusters are the backbone of our winner solution at ActivityNet Kinetics Challenge 2017. Code and models will be released soon.

Da Chen,Yuefeng Chen,Yuhong Li,Feng Mao,Yuan He,Hui Xue
13+阅读 · 2019年11月14日
Wenhao Jiang,Lin Ma,Xinpeng Chen,Hanwang Zhang,Wei Liu
6+阅读 · 2018年4月3日
Xin Wang,Wenhu Chen,Jiawei Wu,Yuan-Fang Wang,William Yang Wang
20+阅读 · 2018年3月29日
Guangyu Robert Yang,Igor Ganichev,Xiao-Jing Wang,Jonathon Shlens,David Sussillo
3+阅读 · 2018年3月16日
4+阅读 · 2018年3月14日
Antoine Miech,Ivan Laptev,Josef Sivic
3+阅读 · 2018年3月5日
Zuxuan Wu,Ting Yao,Yanwei Fu,Yu-Gang Jiang
9+阅读 · 2018年2月22日
Nils Bore,Patric Jensfelt,John Folkesson
6+阅读 · 2018年1月28日
Li Wang,Ting Liu,Bing Wang,Xulei Yang,Gang Wang
13+阅读 · 2018年1月6日
Xiang Long,Chuang Gan,Gerard de Melo,Jiajun Wu,Xiao Liu,Shilei Wen
4+阅读 · 2017年11月27日

79+阅读 · 2020年6月10日

70+阅读 · 2020年5月31日

68+阅读 · 2020年5月14日

46+阅读 · 2020年3月19日

86+阅读 · 2020年3月18日

46+阅读 · 2019年10月9日
Top