Learning compact binary codes for image retrieval problem using deep neural networks has attracted increasing attention recently. However, training deep hashing networks is challenging due to the binary constraints on the hash codes, the similarity preserving property, and the requirement for a vast amount of labelled images. To the best of our knowledge, none of the existing methods has tackled all of these challenges completely in a unified framework. In this work, we propose a novel end-to-end deep hashing approach, which is trained to produce binary codes directly from image pixels without the need of manual annotation. In particular, we propose a novel pairwise binary constrained loss function, which simultaneously encodes the distances between pairs of hash codes, and the binary quantization error. In order to train the network with the proposed loss function, we also propose an efficient parameter learning algorithm. In addition, to provide similar/dissimilar training images to train the network, we exploit 3D models reconstructed from unlabelled images for automatic generation of enormous similar/dissimilar pairs. Extensive experiments on three image retrieval benchmark datasets demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art hashing methods on the image retrieval problem.

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从20世纪70年代开始,有关图像检索的研究就已开始,当时主要是基于文本的图像检索技术(Text-based Image Retrieval,简称TBIR),利用文本描述的方式描述图像的特征,如绘画作品的作者、年代、流派、尺寸等。到90年代以后,出现了对图像的内容语义,如图像的颜色、纹理、布局等进行分析和检索的图像检索技术,即基于内容的图像检索(Content-based Image Retrieval,简称CBIR)技术。CBIR属于基于内容检索(Content-based Retrieval,简称CBR)的一种,CBR中还包括对动态视频、音频等其它形式多媒体信息的检索技术。

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Hashing has been widely used in approximate nearest search for large-scale database retrieval for its computation and storage efficiency. Deep hashing, which devises convolutional neural network architecture to exploit and extract the semantic information or feature of images, has received increasing attention recently. In this survey, several deep supervised hashing methods for image retrieval are evaluated and I conclude three main different directions for deep supervised hashing methods. Several comments are made at the end. Moreover, to break through the bottleneck of the existing hashing methods, I propose a Shadow Recurrent Hashing(SRH) method as a try. Specifically, I devise a CNN architecture to extract the semantic features of images and design a loss function to encourage similar images projected close. To this end, I propose a concept: shadow of the CNN output. During optimization process, the CNN output and its shadow are guiding each other so as to achieve the optimal solution as much as possible. Several experiments on dataset CIFAR-10 show the satisfying performance of SRH.

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Image descriptors based on activations of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become dominant in image retrieval due to their discriminative power, compactness of representation, and search efficiency. Training of CNNs, either from scratch or fine-tuning, requires a large amount of annotated data, where a high quality of annotation is often crucial. In this work, we propose to fine-tune CNNs for image retrieval on a large collection of unordered images in a fully automated manner. Reconstructed 3D models obtained by the state-of-the-art retrieval and structure-from-motion methods guide the selection of the training data. We show that both hard-positive and hard-negative examples, selected by exploiting the geometry and the camera positions available from the 3D models, enhance the performance of particular-object retrieval. CNN descriptor whitening discriminatively learned from the same training data outperforms commonly used PCA whitening. We propose a novel trainable Generalized-Mean (GeM) pooling layer that generalizes max and average pooling and show that it boosts retrieval performance. Applying the proposed method to the VGG network achieves state-of-the-art performance on the standard benchmarks: Oxford Buildings, Paris, and Holidays datasets.

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Weak supervision, e.g., in the form of partial labels or image tags, is currently attracting significant attention in CNN segmentation as it can mitigate the lack of full and laborious pixel/voxel annotations. Enforcing high-order (global) inequality constraints on the network output, for instance, on the size of the target region, can leverage unlabeled data, guiding training with domain-specific knowledge. Inequality constraints are very flexible because they do not assume exact prior knowledge. However,constrained Lagrangian dual optimization has been largely avoided in deep networks, mainly for computational tractability reasons.To the best of our knowledge, the method of Pathak et al. is the only prior work that addresses deep CNNs with linear constraints in weakly supervised segmentation. It uses the constraints to synthesize fully-labeled training masks (proposals)from weak labels, mimicking full supervision and facilitating dual optimization.We propose to introduce a differentiable term, which enforces inequality constraints directly in the loss function, avoiding expensive Lagrangian dual iterates and proposal generation. From constrained-optimization perspective, our simple approach is not optimal as there is no guarantee that the constraints are satisfied. However, surprisingly,it yields substantially better results than the proposal-based constrained CNNs, while reducing the computational demand for training.In the context of cardiac images, we reached a segmentation performance close to full supervision using a fraction (0.1%) of the full ground-truth labels and image-level tags.While our experiments focused on basic linear constraints such as the target-region size and image tags, our framework can be easily extended to other non-linear constraints.Therefore, it has the potential to close the gap between weakly and fully supervised learning in semantic image segmentation.

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Deep Convolutional Neural Networks have pushed the state-of-the art for semantic segmentation provided that a large amount of images together with pixel-wise annotations is available. Data collection is expensive and a solution to alleviate it is to use transfer learning. This reduces the amount of annotated data required for the network training but it does not get rid of this heavy processing step. We propose a method of transfer learning without annotations on the target task for datasets with redundant content and distinct pixel distributions. Our method takes advantage of the approximate content alignment of the images between two datasets when the approximation error prevents the reuse of annotation from one dataset to another. Given the annotations for only one dataset, we train a first network in a supervised manner. This network autonomously learns to generate deep data representations relevant to the semantic segmentation. Then the images in the new dataset, we train a new network to generate a deep data representation that matches the one from the first network on the previous dataset. The training consists in a regression between feature maps and does not require any annotations on the new dataset. We show that this method reaches performances similar to a classic transfer learning on the PASCAL VOC dataset with synthetic transformations.

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Hashing has attracted increasing research attentions in recent years due to its high efficiency of computation and storage in image retrieval. Recent works have demonstrated the superiority of simultaneous feature representations and hash functions learning with deep neural networks. However, most existing deep hashing methods directly learn the hash functions by encoding the global semantic information, while ignoring the local spatial information of images. The loss of local spatial structure makes the performance bottleneck of hash functions, therefore limiting its application for accurate similarity retrieval. In this work, we propose a novel Deep Ordinal Hashing (DOH) method, which learns ordinal representations by leveraging the ranking structure of feature space from both local and global views. In particular, to effectively build the ranking structure, we propose to learn the rank correlation space by exploiting the local spatial information from Fully Convolutional Network (FCN) and the global semantic information from the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) simultaneously. More specifically, an effective spatial attention model is designed to capture the local spatial information by selectively learning well-specified locations closely related to target objects. In such hashing framework,the local spatial and global semantic nature of images are captured in an end-to-end ranking-to-hashing manner. Experimental results conducted on three widely-used datasets demonstrate that the proposed DOH method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art hashing methods.

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Hashing has been a widely-adopted technique for nearest neighbor search in large-scale image retrieval tasks. Recent research has shown that leveraging supervised information can lead to high quality hashing. However, the cost of annotating data is often an obstacle when applying supervised hashing to a new domain. Moreover, the results can suffer from the robustness problem as the data at training and test stage could come from similar but different distributions. This paper studies the exploration of generating synthetic data through semi-supervised generative adversarial networks (GANs), which leverages largely unlabeled and limited labeled training data to produce highly compelling data with intrinsic invariance and global coherence, for better understanding statistical structures of natural data. We demonstrate that the above two limitations can be well mitigated by applying the synthetic data for hashing. Specifically, a novel deep semantic hashing with GANs (DSH-GANs) is presented, which mainly consists of four components: a deep convolution neural networks (CNN) for learning image representations, an adversary stream to distinguish synthetic images from real ones, a hash stream for encoding image representations to hash codes and a classification stream. The whole architecture is trained end-to-end by jointly optimizing three losses, i.e., adversarial loss to correct label of synthetic or real for each sample, triplet ranking loss to preserve the relative similarity ordering in the input real-synthetic triplets and classification loss to classify each sample accurately. Extensive experiments conducted on both CIFAR-10 and NUS-WIDE image benchmarks validate the capability of exploiting synthetic images for hashing. Our framework also achieves superior results when compared to state-of-the-art deep hash models.

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Person re-identification (ReID) aims at matching persons across different views/scenes. In addition to accuracy, the matching efficiency has received more and more attention because of demanding applications using large-scale data. Several binary coding based methods have been proposed for efficient ReID, which either learn projections to map high-dimensional features to compact binary codes, or directly adopt deep neural networks by simply inserting an additional fully-connected layer with tanh-like activations. However, the former approach requires time-consuming hand-crafted feature extraction and complicated (discrete) optimizations; the latter lacks the necessary discriminative information greatly due to the straightforward activation functions. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective framework for efficient ReID inspired by the recent advances in adversarial learning. Specifically, instead of learning explicit projections or adding fully-connected mapping layers, the proposed Adversarial Binary Coding (ABC) framework guides the extraction of binary codes implicitly and effectively. The discriminability of the extracted codes is further enhanced by equipping the ABC with a deep triplet network for the ReID task. More importantly, the ABC and triplet network are simultaneously optimized in an end-to-end manner. Extensive experiments on three large-scale ReID benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of our approach over the state-of-the-art methods.

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Learning compact representation is vital and challenging for large scale multimedia data. Cross-view/cross-modal hashing for effective binary representation learning has received significant attention with exponentially growing availability of multimedia content. Most existing cross-view hashing algorithms emphasize the similarities in individual views, which are then connected via cross-view similarities. In this work, we focus on the exploitation of the discriminative information from different views, and propose an end-to-end method to learn semantic-preserving and discriminative binary representation, dubbed Discriminative Cross-View Hashing (DCVH), in light of learning multitasking binary representation for various tasks including cross-view retrieval, image-to-image retrieval, and image annotation/tagging. The proposed DCVH has the following key components. First, it uses convolutional neural network (CNN) based nonlinear hashing functions and multilabel classification for both images and texts simultaneously. Such hashing functions achieve effective continuous relaxation during training without explicit quantization loss by using Direct Binary Embedding (DBE) layers. Second, we propose an effective view alignment via Hamming distance minimization, which is efficiently accomplished by bit-wise XOR operation. Extensive experiments on two image-text benchmark datasets demonstrate that DCVH outperforms state-of-the-art cross-view hashing algorithms as well as single-view image hashing algorithms. In addition, DCVH can provide competitive performance for image annotation/tagging.

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Hash coding has been widely used in the approximate nearest neighbor search for large-scale image retrieval. Recently, many deep hashing methods have been proposed and shown largely improved performance over traditional feature-learning-based methods. Most of these methods examine the pairwise similarity on the semantic-level labels, where the pairwise similarity is generally defined in a hard-assignment way. That is, the pairwise similarity is '1' if they share no less than one class label and '0' if they do not share any. However, such similarity definition cannot reflect the similarity ranking for pairwise images that hold multiple labels. In this paper, a new deep hashing method is proposed for multi-label image retrieval by re-defining the pairwise similarity into an instance similarity, where the instance similarity is quantified into a percentage based on the normalized semantic labels. Based on the instance similarity, a weighted cross-entropy loss and a minimum mean square error loss are tailored for loss-function construction, and are efficiently used for simultaneous feature learning and hash coding. Experiments on three popular datasets demonstrate that, the proposed method outperforms the competing methods and achieves the state-of-the-art performance in multi-label image retrieval.

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Recent studies show that large-scale sketch-based image retrieval (SBIR) can be efficiently tackled by cross-modal binary representation learning methods, where Hamming distance matching significantly speeds up the process of similarity search. Providing training and test data subjected to a fixed set of pre-defined categories, the cutting-edge SBIR and cross-modal hashing works obtain acceptable retrieval performance. However, most of the existing methods fail when the categories of query sketches have never been seen during training. In this paper, the above problem is briefed as a novel but realistic zero-shot SBIR hashing task. We elaborate the challenges of this special task and accordingly propose a zero-shot sketch-image hashing (ZSIH) model. An end-to-end three-network architecture is built, two of which are treated as the binary encoders. The third network mitigates the sketch-image heterogeneity and enhances the semantic relations among data by utilizing the Kronecker fusion layer and graph convolution, respectively. As an important part of ZSIH, we formulate a generative hashing scheme in reconstructing semantic knowledge representations for zero-shot retrieval. To the best of our knowledge, ZSIH is the first zero-shot hashing work suitable for SBIR and cross-modal search. Comprehensive experiments are conducted on two extended datasets, i.e., Sketchy and TU-Berlin with a novel zero-shot train-test split. The proposed model remarkably outperforms related works.

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