In this paper, we introduce an embedding model, named CapsE, exploring a capsule network to model relationship triples (subject, relation, object). Our CapsE represents each triple as a 3-column matrix where each column vector represents the embedding of an element in the triple. This 3-column matrix is then fed to a convolution layer where multiple filters are operated to generate different feature maps. These feature maps are reconstructed into corresponding capsules which are then routed to another capsule to produce a continuous vector. The length of this vector is used to measure the plausibility score of the triple. Our proposed CapsE obtains better performance than previous state-of-the-art embedding models for knowledge graph completion on two benchmark datasets WN18RR and FB15k-237, and outperforms strong search personalization baselines on SEARCH17.
Translational distance-based knowledge graph embedding has shown progressive improvements on the link prediction task, from TransE to the latest state-of-the-art RotatE. However, N-1, 1-N and N-N predictions still remain challenging. In this work, we propose a novel translational distance-based approach for knowledge graph link prediction. The proposed method includes two-folds, first we extend the RotatE from 2D complex domain to high dimension space with orthogonal transforms to model relations for better modeling capacity. Second, the graph context is explicitly modeled via two directed context representations. These context representations are used as part of the distance scoring function to measure the plausibility of the triples during training and inference. The proposed approach effectively improves prediction accuracy on the difficult N-1, 1-N and N-N cases for knowledge graph link prediction task. The experimental results show that it achieves better performance on two benchmark data sets compared to the baseline RotatE, especially on data set (FB15k-237) with many high in-degree connection nodes.
In Multi-Label Text Classification (MLTC), one sample can belong to more than one class. It is observed that most MLTC tasks, there are dependencies or correlations among labels. Existing methods tend to ignore the relationship among labels. In this paper, a graph attention network-based model is proposed to capture the attentive dependency structure among the labels. The graph attention network uses a feature matrix and a correlation matrix to capture and explore the crucial dependencies between the labels and generate classifiers for the task. The generated classifiers are applied to sentence feature vectors obtained from the text feature extraction network (BiLSTM) to enable end-to-end training. Attention allows the system to assign different weights to neighbor nodes per label, thus allowing it to learn the dependencies among labels implicitly. The results of the proposed model are validated on five real-world MLTC datasets. The proposed model achieves similar or better performance compared to the previous state-of-the-art models.
Knowledge graphs are important resources for many artificial intelligence tasks but often suffer from incompleteness. In this work, we propose to use pre-trained language models for knowledge graph completion. We treat triples in knowledge graphs as textual sequences and propose a novel framework named Knowledge Graph Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformer (KG-BERT) to model these triples. Our method takes entity and relation descriptions of a triple as input and computes scoring function of the triple with the KG-BERT language model. Experimental results on multiple benchmark knowledge graphs show that our method can achieve state-of-the-art performance in triple classification, link prediction and relation prediction tasks.
The graph convolution network (GCN) is a widely-used facility to realize graph-based semi-supervised learning, which usually integrates node features and graph topologic information to build learning models. However, as for multi-label learning tasks, the supervision part of GCN simply minimizes the cross-entropy loss between the last layer outputs and the ground-truth label distribution, which tends to lose some useful information such as label correlations, so that prevents from obtaining high performance. In this paper, we pro-pose a novel GCN-based semi-supervised learning approach for multi-label classification, namely ML-GCN. ML-GCN first uses a GCN to embed the node features and graph topologic information. Then, it randomly generates a label matrix, where each row (i.e., label vector) represents a kind of labels. The dimension of the label vector is the same as that of the node vector before the last convolution operation of GCN. That is, all labels and nodes are embedded in a uniform vector space. Finally, during the ML-GCN model training, label vectors and node vectors are concatenated to serve as the inputs of the relaxed skip-gram model to detect the node-label correlation as well as the label-label correlation. Experimental results on several graph classification datasets show that the proposed ML-GCN outperforms four state-of-the-art methods.
To provide more accurate, diverse, and explainable recommendation, it is compulsory to go beyond modeling user-item interactions and take side information into account. Traditional methods like factorization machine (FM) cast it as a supervised learning problem, which assumes each interaction as an independent instance with side information encoded. Due to the overlook of the relations among instances or items (e.g., the director of a movie is also an actor of another movie), these methods are insufficient to distill the collaborative signal from the collective behaviors of users. In this work, we investigate the utility of knowledge graph (KG), which breaks down the independent interaction assumption by linking items with their attributes. We argue that in such a hybrid structure of KG and user-item graph, high-order relations --- which connect two items with one or multiple linked attributes --- are an essential factor for successful recommendation. We propose a new method named Knowledge Graph Attention Network (KGAT) which explicitly models the high-order connectivities in KG in an end-to-end fashion. It recursively propagates the embeddings from a node's neighbors (which can be users, items, or attributes) to refine the node's embedding, and employs an attention mechanism to discriminate the importance of the neighbors. Our KGAT is conceptually advantageous to existing KG-based recommendation methods, which either exploit high-order relations by extracting paths or implicitly modeling them with regularization. Empirical results on three public benchmarks show that KGAT significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods like Neural FM and RippleNet. Further studies verify the efficacy of embedding propagation for high-order relation modeling and the interpretability benefits brought by the attention mechanism.
Search personalization aims to tailor search results to each specific user based on the user's personal interests and preferences (i.e., the user profile). Recent research approaches to search personalization by modelling the potential 3-way relationship between the submitted query, the user and the search results (i.e., documents). That relationship is then used to personalize the search results to that user. In this paper, we introduce a novel embedding model based on capsule network, which recently is a breakthrough in deep learning, to model the 3-way relationships for search personalization. In the model, each user (submitted query or returned document) is embedded by a vector in the same vector space. The 3-way relationship is described as a triple of (query, user, document) which is then modeled as a 3-column matrix containing the three embedding vectors. After that, the 3-column matrix is fed into a deep learning architecture to re-rank the search results returned by a basis ranker. Experimental results on query logs from a commercial web search engine show that our model achieves better performances than the basis ranker as well as strong search personalization baselines.
Knowledge graph (KG) completion aims to fill the missing facts in a KG, where a fact is represented as a triple in the form of $(subject, relation, object)$. Current KG completion models compel two-thirds of a triple provided (e.g., $subject$ and $relation$) to predict the remaining one. In this paper, we propose a new model, which uses a KG-specific multi-layer recurrent neutral network (RNN) to model triples in a KG as sequences. It outperformed several state-of-the-art KG completion models on the conventional entity prediction task for many evaluation metrics, based on two benchmark datasets and a more difficult dataset. Furthermore, our model is enabled by the sequential characteristic and thus capable of predicting the whole triples only given one entity. Our experiments demonstrated that our model achieved promising performance on this new triple prediction task.
Knowledge graphs are large graph-structured databases of facts, which typically suffer from incompleteness. Link prediction is the task of inferring missing relations (links) between entities (nodes) in a knowledge graph. We approach this task using a hypernetwork architecture to generate convolutional layer filters specific to each relation and apply those filters to the subject entity embeddings. This architecture enables a trade-off between non-linear expressiveness and the number of parameters to learn. Our model simplifies the entity and relation embedding interactions introduced by the predecessor convolutional model, while outperforming all previous approaches to link prediction across all standard link prediction datasets.
Network embedding represents nodes in a continuous vector space and preserves structure information from the Network. Existing methods usually adopt a "one-size-fits-all" approach when concerning multi-scale structure information, such as first- and second-order proximity of nodes, ignoring the fact that different scales play different roles in the embedding learning. In this paper, we propose an Attention-based Adversarial Autoencoder Network Embedding(AAANE) framework, which promotes the collaboration of different scales and lets them vote for robust representations. The proposed AAANE consists of two components: 1) Attention-based autoencoder effectively capture the highly non-linear network structure, which can de-emphasize irrelevant scales during training. 2) An adversarial regularization guides the autoencoder learn robust representations by matching the posterior distribution of the latent embeddings to given prior distribution. This is the first attempt to introduce attention mechanisms to multi-scale network embedding. Experimental results on real-world networks show that our learned attention parameters are different for every network and the proposed approach outperforms existing state-of-the-art approaches for network embedding.
Knowledge Graph Embedding methods aim at representing entities and relations in a knowledge base as points or vectors in a continuous vector space. Several approaches using embeddings have shown promising results on tasks such as link prediction, entity recommendation, question answering, and triplet classification. However, only a few methods can compute low-dimensional embeddings of very large knowledge bases. In this paper, we propose KG2Vec, a novel approach to Knowledge Graph Embedding based on the skip-gram model. Instead of using a predefined scoring function, we learn it relying on Long Short-Term Memories. We evaluated the goodness of our embeddings on knowledge graph completion and show that KG2Vec is comparable to the quality of the scalable state-of-the-art approaches and can process large graphs by parsing more than a hundred million triples in less than 6 hours on common hardware.