这篇文章说的还是图嵌入，但是每个节点不只有网络结构，还有自己的内容，比如一个文本。作者说要嵌入的话，就网络结是不够的，还要把文本的内容也一起嵌入到矢量里去。先用一个cnn表达文本，然后把一个节点的文本表达，和它的邻居的文本表达，一起放进一个graph cnn提取它的特征，用来预测它是哪个节点。作者是南开大学的Jie Liu教授。
Learning Network-to-Network Model for Content-rich Network Embedding
He, Zhicheng, Jie Liu, Na Li, and Yalou Huang
In Proceedings of the 25th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining, pp. 1037-1045. ACM, 2019.
Recently, network embedding (NE) has achieved great successes in learning low dimensional representations for network nodes and has been increasingly applied to various network analytic tasks. In this paper, we consider the representation learning problem for content-rich networks whose nodes are associated with rich content information. Content-rich network embedding is challenging in fusing the complex structural dependencies and the rich contents. To tackle the challenges, we propose a generative model, Network-to-Network Network Embedding (Net2Net-NE) model, which can effectively fuse the structure and content information into one continuous embedding vector for each node. Specifically, we regard the content-rich network as a pair of networks with different modalities, i.e., content network and node network. By exploiting the strong correlation between the focal node and the nodes to whom it is connected to, a multilayer recursively composable encoder is proposed to fuse the structure and content information of the entire ego network into the egocentric node embedding. Moreover, a cross-modal decoder is deployed to mapping the egocentric node embeddings into node identities in an interconnected network. By learning the identity of each node according to its content, the mapping from content network to node network is learned in a generative manner. Hence the latent encoding vectors learned by the Net2Net-NE can be used as effective node embeddings. Extensive experimental results on three real-world networks demonstrate the superiority of Net2Net-NE over state-of-the-art methods.
Mining graph data has become a popular research topic in computer science and has been widely studied in both academia and industry given the increasing amount of network data in the recent years. However, the huge amount of network data has posed great challenges for efficient analysis. This motivates the advent of graph representation which maps the graph into a low-dimension vector space, keeping original graph structure and supporting graph inference. The investigation on efficient representation of a graph has profound theoretical significance and important realistic meaning, we therefore introduce some basic ideas in graph representation/network embedding as well as some representative models in this chapter.
The graph convolution network (GCN) is a widely-used facility to realize graph-based semi-supervised learning, which usually integrates node features and graph topologic information to build learning models. However, as for multi-label learning tasks, the supervision part of GCN simply minimizes the cross-entropy loss between the last layer outputs and the ground-truth label distribution, which tends to lose some useful information such as label correlations, so that prevents from obtaining high performance. In this paper, we pro-pose a novel GCN-based semi-supervised learning approach for multi-label classification, namely ML-GCN. ML-GCN first uses a GCN to embed the node features and graph topologic information. Then, it randomly generates a label matrix, where each row (i.e., label vector) represents a kind of labels. The dimension of the label vector is the same as that of the node vector before the last convolution operation of GCN. That is, all labels and nodes are embedded in a uniform vector space. Finally, during the ML-GCN model training, label vectors and node vectors are concatenated to serve as the inputs of the relaxed skip-gram model to detect the node-label correlation as well as the label-label correlation. Experimental results on several graph classification datasets show that the proposed ML-GCN outperforms four state-of-the-art methods.
Network representation learning in low dimensional vector space has attracted considerable attention in both academic and industrial domains. Most real-world networks are dynamic with addition/deletion of nodes and edges. The existing graph embedding methods are designed for static networks and they cannot capture evolving patterns in a large dynamic network. In this paper, we propose a dynamic embedding method, dynnode2vec, based on the well-known graph embedding method node2vec. Node2vec is a random walk based embedding method for static networks. Applying static network embedding in dynamic settings has two crucial problems: 1) Generating random walks for every time step is time consuming 2) Embedding vector spaces in each timestamp are different. In order to tackle these challenges, dynnode2vec uses evolving random walks and initializes the current graph embedding with previous embedding vectors. We demonstrate the advantages of the proposed dynamic network embedding by conducting empirical evaluations on several large dynamic network datasets.
An attributed network enriches a pure network by encoding a part of widely accessible node auxiliary information into node attributes. Learning vector representation of each node a.k.a. Network Embedding (NE) for such an attributed network by considering both structure and attribute information has recently attracted considerable attention, since each node embedding is simply a unified low-dimension vector representation that makes downstream tasks e.g. link prediction more efficient and much easier to realize. Most of previous works have not considered the significant case of a network with incomplete structure information, which however, would often appear in our real-world scenarios e.g. the abnormal users in a social network who intentionally hide their friendships. And different networks obviously have different levels of incomplete structure information, which imposes more challenges to balance two sources of information. To tackle that, we propose a robust NE method called Attributed Biased Random Walks (ABRW) to employ attribute information for compensating incomplete structure information by using transition matrices. The experiments of link prediction and node classification tasks on real-world datasets confirm the robustness and effectiveness of our method to the different levels of the incomplete structure information.
Knowledge graphs are large graph-structured databases of facts, which typically suffer from incompleteness. Link prediction is the task of inferring missing relations (links) between entities (nodes) in a knowledge graph. We approach this task using a hypernetwork architecture to generate convolutional layer filters specific to each relation and apply those filters to the subject entity embeddings. This architecture enables a trade-off between non-linear expressiveness and the number of parameters to learn. Our model simplifies the entity and relation embedding interactions introduced by the predecessor convolutional model, while outperforming all previous approaches to link prediction across all standard link prediction datasets.
Network embedding has become a hot research topic recently which can provide low-dimensional feature representations for many machine learning applications. Current work focuses on either (1) whether the embedding is designed as an unsupervised learning task by explicitly preserving the structural connectivity in the network, or (2) whether the embedding is a by-product during the supervised learning of a specific discriminative task in a deep neural network. In this paper, we focus on bridging the gap of the two lines of the research. We propose to adapt the Generative Adversarial model to perform network embedding, in which the generator is trying to generate vertex pairs, while the discriminator tries to distinguish the generated vertex pairs from real connections (edges) in the network. Wasserstein-1 distance is adopted to train the generator to gain better stability. We develop three variations of models, including GANE which applies cosine similarity, GANE-O1 which preserves the first-order proximity, and GANE-O2 which tries to preserves the second-order proximity of the network in the low-dimensional embedded vector space. We later prove that GANE-O2 has the same objective function as GANE-O1 when negative sampling is applied to simplify the training process in GANE-O2. Experiments with real-world network datasets demonstrate that our models constantly outperform state-of-the-art solutions with significant improvements on precision in link prediction, as well as on visualizations and accuracy in clustering tasks.
Network embedding has attracted considerable research attention recently. However, the existing methods are incapable of handling billion-scale networks, because they are computationally expensive and, at the same time, difficult to be accelerated by distributed computing schemes. To address these problems, we propose RandNE, a novel and simple billion-scale network embedding method. Specifically, we propose a Gaussian random projection approach to map the network into a low-dimensional embedding space while preserving the high-order proximities between nodes. To reduce the time complexity, we design an iterative projection procedure to avoid the explicit calculation of the high-order proximities. Theoretical analysis shows that our method is extremely efficient, and friendly to distributed computing schemes without any communication cost in the calculation. We demonstrate the efficacy of RandNE over state-of-the-art methods in network reconstruction and link prediction tasks on multiple datasets with different scales, ranging from thousands to billions of nodes and edges.
Classifying large scale networks into several categories and distinguishing them according to their fine structures is of great importance with several applications in real life. However, most studies of complex networks focus on properties of a single network but seldom on classification, clustering, and comparison between different networks, in which the network is treated as a whole. Due to the non-Euclidean properties of the data, conventional methods can hardly be applied on networks directly. In this paper, we propose a novel framework of complex network classifier (CNC) by integrating network embedding and convolutional neural network to tackle the problem of network classification. By training the classifiers on synthetic complex network data and real international trade network data, we show CNC can not only classify networks in a high accuracy and robustness, it can also extract the features of the networks automatically.
Traditional methods for link prediction can be categorized into three main types: graph structure feature-based, latent feature-based, and explicit feature-based. Graph structure feature methods leverage some handcrafted node proximity scores, e.g., common neighbors, to estimate the likelihood of links. Latent feature methods rely on factorizing networks' matrix representations to learn an embedding for each node. Explicit feature methods train a machine learning model on two nodes' explicit attributes. Each of the three types of methods has its unique merits. In this paper, we propose SEAL (learning from Subgraphs, Embeddings, and Attributes for Link prediction), a new framework for link prediction which combines the power of all the three types into a single graph neural network (GNN). GNN is a new type of neural network which directly accepts graphs as input and outputs their labels. In SEAL, the input to the GNN is a local subgraph around each target link. We prove theoretically that our local subgraphs also reserve a great deal of high-order graph structure features related to link existence. Another key feature is that our GNN can naturally incorporate latent features and explicit features. It is achieved by concatenating node embeddings (latent features) and node attributes (explicit features) in the node information matrix for each subgraph, thus combining the three types of features to enhance GNN learning. Through extensive experiments, SEAL shows unprecedentedly strong performance against a wide range of baseline methods, including various link prediction heuristics and network embedding methods.
Social network analysis provides meaningful information about behavior of network members that can be used for diverse applications such as classification, link prediction. However, network analysis is computationally expensive because of feature learning for different applications. In recent years, many researches have focused on feature learning methods in social networks. Network embedding represents the network in a lower dimensional representation space with the same properties which presents a compressed representation of the network. In this paper, we introduce a novel algorithm named "CARE" for network embedding that can be used for different types of networks including weighted, directed and complex. Current methods try to preserve local neighborhood information of nodes, whereas the proposed method utilizes local neighborhood and community information of network nodes to cover both local and global structure of social networks. CARE builds customized paths, which are consisted of local and global structure of network nodes, as a basis for network embedding and uses the Skip-gram model to learn representation vector of nodes. Subsequently, stochastic gradient descent is applied to optimize our objective function and learn the final representation of nodes. Our method can be scalable when new nodes are appended to network without information loss. Parallelize generation of customized random walks is also used for speeding up CARE. We evaluate the performance of CARE on multi label classification and link prediction tasks. Experimental results on various networks indicate that the proposed method outperforms others in both Micro and Macro-f1 measures for different size of training data.