Unsupervised domain adaptation, which involves transferring knowledge from a label-rich source domain to an unlabeled target domain, can be used to substantially reduce annotation costs in the field of object detection. In this study, we demonstrate that adversarial training in the source domain can be employed as a new approach for unsupervised domain adaptation. Specifically, we establish that adversarially trained detectors achieve improved detection performance in target domains that are significantly shifted from source domains. This phenomenon is attributed to the fact that adversarially trained detectors can be used to extract robust features that are in alignment with human perception and worth transferring across domains while discarding domain-specific non-robust features. In addition, we propose a method that combines adversarial training and feature alignment to ensure the improved alignment of robust features with the target domain. We conduct experiments on four benchmark datasets and confirm the effectiveness of our proposed approach on large domain shifts from real to artistic images. Compared to the baseline models, the adversarially trained detectors improve the mean average precision by up to 7.7%, and further by up to 11.8% when feature alignments are incorporated. Although our method degrades performance for small domain shifts, quantification of the domain shift based on the Frechet distance allows us to determine whether adversarial training should be conducted.
Unsupervised domain adaptive classifcation intends to improve the classifcation performance on unlabeled target domain. To alleviate the adverse effect of domain shift, many approaches align the source and target domains in the feature space. However, a feature is usually taken as a whole for alignment without explicitly making domain alignment proactively serve the classifcation task, leading to sub-optimal solution. In this paper, we propose an effective Task-oriented Alignment (ToAlign) for unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA). We study what features should be aligned across domains and propose to make the domain alignment proactively serve classifcation by performing feature decomposition and alignment under the guidance of the prior knowledge induced from the classifcation task itself. Particularly, we explicitly decompose a feature in the source domain into a task-related/discriminative feature that should be aligned, and a task-irrelevant feature that should be avoided/ignored, based on the classifcation meta-knowledge. Extensive experimental results on various benchmarks (e.g., Offce-Home, Visda-2017, and DomainNet) under different domain adaptation settings demonstrate the effectiveness of ToAlign which helps achieve the state-of-the-art performance. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/microsoft/UDA
In semi-supervised domain adaptation, a few labeled samples per class in the target domain guide features of the remaining target samples to aggregate around them. However, the trained model cannot produce a highly discriminative feature representation for the target domain because the training data is dominated by labeled samples from the source domain. This could lead to disconnection between the labeled and unlabeled target samples as well as misalignment between unlabeled target samples and the source domain. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called Cross-domain Adaptive Clustering to address this problem. To achieve both inter-domain and intra-domain adaptation, we first introduce an adversarial adaptive clustering loss to group features of unlabeled target data into clusters and perform cluster-wise feature alignment across the source and target domains. We further apply pseudo labeling to unlabeled samples in the target domain and retain pseudo-labels with high confidence. Pseudo labeling expands the number of ``labeled" samples in each class in the target domain, and thus produces a more robust and powerful cluster core for each class to facilitate adversarial learning. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets, including DomainNet, Office-Home and Office, demonstrate that our proposed approach achieves the state-of-the-art performance in semi-supervised domain adaptation.
We aim at the problem named One-Shot Unsupervised Domain Adaptation. Unlike traditional Unsupervised Domain Adaptation, it assumes that only one unlabeled target sample can be available when learning to adapt. This setting is realistic but more challenging, in which conventional adaptation approaches are prone to failure due to the scarce of unlabeled target data. To this end, we propose a novel Adversarial Style Mining approach, which combines the style transfer module and task-specific module into an adversarial manner. Specifically, the style transfer module iteratively searches for harder stylized images around the one-shot target sample according to the current learning state, leading the task model to explore the potential styles that are difficult to solve in the almost unseen target domain, thus boosting the adaptation performance in a data-scarce scenario. The adversarial learning framework makes the style transfer module and task-specific module benefit each other during the competition. Extensive experiments on both cross-domain classification and segmentation benchmarks verify that ASM achieves state-of-the-art adaptation performance under the challenging one-shot setting.
We propose an approach for unsupervised adaptation of object detectors from label-rich to label-poor domains which can significantly reduce annotation costs associated with detection. Recently, approaches that align distributions of source and target images using an adversarial loss have been proven effective for adapting object classifiers. However, for object detection, fully matching the entire distributions of source and target images to each other at the global image level may fail, as domains could have distinct scene layouts and different combinations of objects. On the other hand, strong matching of local features such as texture and color makes sense, as it does not change category level semantics. This motivates us to propose a novel approach for detector adaptation based on strong local alignment and weak global alignment. Our key contribution is the weak alignment model, which focuses the adversarial alignment loss on images that are globally similar and puts less emphasis on aligning images that are globally dissimilar. Additionally, we design the strong domain alignment model to only look at local receptive fields of the feature map. We empirically verify the effectiveness of our approach on several detection datasets comprising both large and small domain shifts.
Deep learning based object detectors require thousands of diversified bounding box and class annotated examples. Though image object detectors have shown rapid progress in recent years with the release of multiple large-scale static image datasets, object detection on videos still remains an open problem due to scarcity of annotated video frames. Having a robust video object detector is an essential component for video understanding and curating large-scale automated annotations in videos. Domain difference between images and videos makes the transferability of image object detectors to videos sub-optimal. The most common solution is to use weakly supervised annotations where a video frame has to be tagged for presence/absence of object categories. This still takes up manual effort. In this paper we take a step forward by adapting the concept of unsupervised adversarial image-to-image translation to perturb static high quality images to be visually indistinguishable from a set of video frames. We assume the presence of a fully annotated static image dataset and an unannotated video dataset. Object detector is trained on adversarially transformed image dataset using the annotations of the original dataset. Experiments on Youtube-Objects and Youtube-Objects-Subset datasets with two contemporary baseline object detectors reveal that such unsupervised pixel level domain adaptation boosts the generalization performance on video frames compared to direct application of original image object detector. Also, we achieve competitive performance compared to recent baselines of weakly supervised methods. This paper can be seen as an application of image translation for cross domain object detection.
Recent works showed that Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) can be successfully applied in unsupervised domain adaptation, where, given a labeled source dataset and an unlabeled target dataset, the goal is to train powerful classifiers for the target samples. In particular, it was shown that a GAN objective function can be used to learn target features indistinguishable from the source ones. In this work, we extend this framework by (i) forcing the learned feature extractor to be domain-invariant, and (ii) training it through data augmentation in the feature space, namely performing feature augmentation. While data augmentation in the image space is a well established technique in deep learning, feature augmentation has not yet received the same level of attention. We accomplish it by means of a feature generator trained by playing the GAN minimax game against source features. Results show that both enforcing domain-invariance and performing feature augmentation lead to superior or comparable performance to state-of-the-art results in several unsupervised domain adaptation benchmarks.
Can we detect common objects in a variety of image domains without instance-level annotations? In this paper, we present a framework for a novel task, cross-domain weakly supervised object detection, which addresses this question. For this paper, we have access to images with instance-level annotations in a source domain (e.g., natural image) and images with image-level annotations in a target domain (e.g., watercolor). In addition, the classes to be detected in the target domain are all or a subset of those in the source domain. Starting from a fully supervised object detector, which is pre-trained on the source domain, we propose a two-step progressive domain adaptation technique by fine-tuning the detector on two types of artificially and automatically generated samples. We test our methods on our newly collected datasets containing three image domains, and achieve an improvement of approximately 5 to 20 percentage points in terms of mean average precision (mAP) compared to the best-performing baselines.
In this paper, we consider the problem of leveraging existing fully labeled categories to improve the weakly supervised detection (WSD) of new object categories, which we refer to as mixed supervised detection (MSD). Different from previous MSD methods that directly transfer the pre-trained object detectors from existing categories to new categories, we propose a more reasonable and robust objectness transfer approach for MSD. In our framework, we first learn domain-invariant objectness knowledge from the existing fully labeled categories. The knowledge is modeled based on invariant features that are robust to the distribution discrepancy between the existing categories and new categories; therefore the resulting knowledge would generalize well to new categories and could assist detection models to reject distractors (e.g., object parts) in weakly labeled images of new categories. Under the guidance of learned objectness knowledge, we utilize multiple instance learning (MIL) to model the concepts of both objects and distractors and to further improve the ability of rejecting distractors in weakly labeled images. Our robust objectness transfer approach outperforms the existing MSD methods, and achieves state-of-the-art results on the challenging ILSVRC2013 detection dataset and the PASCAL VOC datasets.
Object detection typically assumes that training and test data are drawn from an identical distribution, which, however, does not always hold in practice. Such a distribution mismatch will lead to a significant performance drop. In this work, we aim to improve the cross-domain robustness of object detection. We tackle the domain shift on two levels: 1) the image-level shift, such as image style, illumination, etc, and 2) the instance-level shift, such as object appearance, size, etc. We build our approach based on the recent state-of-the-art Faster R-CNN model, and design two domain adaptation components, on image level and instance level, to reduce the domain discrepancy. The two domain adaptation components are based on H-divergence theory, and are implemented by learning a domain classifier in adversarial training manner. The domain classifiers on different levels are further reinforced with a consistency regularization to learn a domain-invariant region proposal network (RPN) in the Faster R-CNN model. We evaluate our newly proposed approach using multiple datasets including Cityscapes, KITTI, SIM10K, etc. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach for robust object detection in various domain shift scenarios.
Recent advances in object detection are mainly driven by deep learning with large-scale detection benchmarks. However, the fully-annotated training set is often limited for a target detection task, which may deteriorate the performance of deep detectors. To address this challenge, we propose a novel low-shot transfer detector (LSTD) in this paper, where we leverage rich source-domain knowledge to construct an effective target-domain detector with very few training examples. The main contributions are described as follows. First, we design a flexible deep architecture of LSTD to alleviate transfer difficulties in low-shot detection. This architecture can integrate the advantages of both SSD and Faster RCNN in a unified deep framework. Second, we introduce a novel regularized transfer learning framework for low-shot detection, where the transfer knowledge (TK) and background depression (BD) regularizations are proposed to leverage object knowledge respectively from source and target domains, in order to further enhance fine-tuning with a few target images. Finally, we examine our LSTD on a number of challenging low-shot detection experiments, where LSTD outperforms other state-of-the-art approaches. The results demonstrate that LSTD is a preferable deep detector for low-shot scenarios.