As part of the Human-Computer Interaction field, Expressive speech synthesis is a very rich domain as it requires knowledge in areas such as machine learning, signal processing, sociology, psychology. In this Chapter, we will focus mostly on the technical side. From the recording of expressive speech to its modeling, the reader will have an overview of the main paradigms used in this field, through some of the most prominent systems and methods. We explain how speech can be represented and encoded with audio features. We present a history of the main methods of Text-to-Speech synthesis: concatenative, parametric and statistical parametric speech synthesis. Finally, we focus on the last one, with the last techniques modeling Text-to-Speech synthesis as a sequence-to-sequence problem. This enables the use of Deep Learning blocks such as Convolutional and Recurrent Neural Networks as well as Attention Mechanism. The last part of the Chapter intends to assemble the different aspects of the theory and summarize the concepts.
Over the past few years, we have seen fundamental breakthroughs in core problems in machine learning, largely driven by advances in deep neural networks. At the same time, the amount of data collected in a wide array of scientific domains is dramatically increasing in both size and complexity. Taken together, this suggests many exciting opportunities for deep learning applications in scientific settings. But a significant challenge to this is simply knowing where to start. The sheer breadth and diversity of different deep learning techniques makes it difficult to determine what scientific problems might be most amenable to these methods, or which specific combination of methods might offer the most promising first approach. In this survey, we focus on addressing this central issue, providing an overview of many widely used deep learning models, spanning visual, sequential and graph structured data, associated tasks and different training methods, along with techniques to use deep learning with less data and better interpret these complex models --- two central considerations for many scientific use cases. We also include overviews of the full design process, implementation tips, and links to a plethora of tutorials, research summaries and open-sourced deep learning pipelines and pretrained models, developed by the community. We hope that this survey will help accelerate the use of deep learning across different scientific domains.
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are a hot research topic recently. GANs have been widely studied since 2014, and a large number of algorithms have been proposed. However, there is few comprehensive study explaining the connections among different GANs variants, and how they have evolved. In this paper, we attempt to provide a review on various GANs methods from the perspectives of algorithms, theory, and applications. Firstly, the motivations, mathematical representations, and structure of most GANs algorithms are introduced in details. Furthermore, GANs have been combined with other machine learning algorithms for specific applications, such as semi-supervised learning, transfer learning, and reinforcement learning. This paper compares the commonalities and differences of these GANs methods. Secondly, theoretical issues related to GANs are investigated. Thirdly, typical applications of GANs in image processing and computer vision, natural language processing, music, speech and audio, medical field, and data science are illustrated. Finally, the future open research problems for GANs are pointed out.
In recent years, disinformation including fake news, has became a global phenomenon due to its explosive growth, particularly on social media. The wide spread of disinformation and fake news can cause detrimental societal effects. Despite the recent progress in detecting disinformation and fake news, it is still non-trivial due to its complexity, diversity, multi-modality, and costs of fact-checking or annotation. The goal of this chapter is to pave the way for appreciating the challenges and advancements via: (1) introducing the types of information disorder on social media and examine their differences and connections; (2) describing important and emerging tasks to combat disinformation for characterization, detection and attribution; and (3) discussing a weak supervision approach to detect disinformation with limited labeled data. We then provide an overview of the chapters in this book that represent the recent advancements in three related parts: (1) user engagements in the dissemination of information disorder; (2) techniques on detecting and mitigating disinformation; and (3) trending issues such as ethics, blockchain, clickbaits, etc. We hope this book to be a convenient entry point for researchers, practitioners, and students to understand the problems and challenges, learn state-of-the-art solutions for their specific needs, and quickly identify new research problems in their domains.
BERT-based architectures currently give state-of-the-art performance on many NLP tasks, but little is known about the exact mechanisms that contribute to its success. In the current work, we focus on the interpretation of self-attention, which is one of the fundamental underlying components of BERT. Using a subset of GLUE tasks and a set of handcrafted features-of-interest, we propose the methodology and carry out a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the information encoded by the individual BERT's heads. Our findings suggest that there is a limited set of attention patterns that are repeated across different heads, indicating the overall model overparametrization. While different heads consistently use the same attention patterns, they have varying impact on performance across different tasks. We show that manually disabling attention in certain heads leads to a performance improvement over the regular fine-tuned BERT models.
Neural network based end-to-end text to speech (TTS) has significantly improved the quality of synthesized speech. Prominent methods (e.g., Tacotron 2) usually first generate mel-spectrogram from text, and then synthesize speech from mel-spectrogram using vocoder such as WaveNet. Compared with traditional concatenative and statistical parametric approaches, neural network based end-to-end models suffer from slow inference speed, and the synthesized speech is usually not robust (i.e., some words are skipped or repeated) and lack of controllability (voice speed or prosody control). In this work, we propose a novel feed-forward network based on Transformer to generate mel-spectrogram in parallel for TTS. Specifically, we extract attention alignments from an encoder-decoder based teacher model for phoneme duration prediction, which is used by a length regulator to expand the source phoneme sequence to match the length of target mel-sprectrogram sequence for parallel mel-sprectrogram generation. Experiments on the LJSpeech dataset show that our parallel model matches autoregressive models in terms of speech quality, nearly eliminates the skipped words and repeated words, and can adjust voice speed smoothly. Most importantly, compared with autoregressive models, our model speeds up the mel-sprectrogram generation by 270x. Therefore, we call our model FastSpeech. We will release the code on Github.
The field of Text-to-Speech has experienced huge improvements last years benefiting from deep learning techniques. Producing realistic speech becomes possible now. As a consequence, the research on the control of the expressiveness, allowing to generate speech in different styles or manners, has attracted increasing attention lately. Systems able to control style have been developed and show impressive results. However the control parameters often consist of latent variables and remain complex to interpret. In this paper, we analyze and compare different latent spaces and obtain an interpretation of their influence on expressive speech. This will enable the possibility to build controllable speech synthesis systems with an understandable behaviour.
In this paper, we introduce the Variational Autoencoder (VAE) to an end-to-end speech synthesis model, to learn the latent representation of speaking styles in an unsupervised manner. The style representation learned through VAE shows good properties such as disentangling, scaling, and combination, which makes it easy for style control. Style transfer can be achieved in this framework by first inferring style representation through the recognition network of VAE, then feeding it into TTS network to guide the style in synthesizing speech. To avoid Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence collapse in training, several techniques are adopted. Finally, the proposed model shows good performance of style control and outperforms Global Style Token (GST) model in ABX preference tests on style transfer.
This paper proposes the decision tree latent controller generative adversarial network (DTLC-GAN), an extension of a GAN that can learn hierarchically interpretable representations without relying on detailed supervision. To impose a hierarchical inclusion structure on latent variables, we incorporate a new architecture called the DTLC into the generator input. The DTLC has a multiple-layer tree structure in which the ON or OFF of the child node codes is controlled by the parent node codes. By using this architecture hierarchically, we can obtain the latent space in which the lower layer codes are selectively used depending on the higher layer ones. To make the latent codes capture salient semantic features of images in a hierarchically disentangled manner in the DTLC, we also propose a hierarchical conditional mutual information regularization and optimize it with a newly defined curriculum learning method that we propose as well. This makes it possible to discover hierarchically interpretable representations in a layer-by-layer manner on the basis of information gain by only using a single DTLC-GAN model. We evaluated the DTLC-GAN on various datasets, i.e., MNIST, CIFAR-10, Tiny ImageNet, 3D Faces, and CelebA, and confirmed that the DTLC-GAN can learn hierarchically interpretable representations with either unsupervised or weakly supervised settings. Furthermore, we applied the DTLC-GAN to image-retrieval tasks and showed its effectiveness in representation learning.
Recently introduced generative adversarial network (GAN) has been shown numerous promising results to generate realistic samples. The essential task of GAN is to control the features of samples generated from a random distribution. While the current GAN structures, such as conditional GAN, successfully generate samples with desired major features, they often fail to produce detailed features that bring specific differences among samples. To overcome this limitation, here we propose a controllable GAN (ControlGAN) structure. By separating a feature classifier from a discriminator, the generator of ControlGAN is designed to learn generating synthetic samples with the specific detailed features. Evaluated with multiple image datasets, ControlGAN shows a power to generate improved samples with well-controlled features. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ControlGAN can generate intermediate features and opposite features for interpolated and extrapolated input labels that are not used in the training process. It implies that ControlGAN can significantly contribute to the variety of generated samples.
The field of Multi-Agent System (MAS) is an active area of research within Artificial Intelligence, with an increasingly important impact in industrial and other real-world applications. Within a MAS, autonomous agents interact to pursue personal interests and/or to achieve common objectives. Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOPs) have emerged as one of the prominent agent architectures to govern the agents' autonomous behavior, where both algorithms and communication models are driven by the structure of the specific problem. During the last decade, several extensions to the DCOP model have enabled them to support MAS in complex, real-time, and uncertain environments. This survey aims at providing an overview of the DCOP model, giving a classification of its multiple extensions and addressing both resolution methods and applications that find a natural mapping within each class of DCOPs. The proposed classification suggests several future perspectives for DCOP extensions, and identifies challenges in the design of efficient resolution algorithms, possibly through the adaptation of strategies from different areas.