In recent years, disinformation including fake news, has became a global phenomenon due to its explosive growth, particularly on social media. The wide spread of disinformation and fake news can cause detrimental societal effects. Despite the recent progress in detecting disinformation and fake news, it is still non-trivial due to its complexity, diversity, multi-modality, and costs of fact-checking or annotation. The goal of this chapter is to pave the way for appreciating the challenges and advancements via: (1) introducing the types of information disorder on social media and examine their differences and connections; (2) describing important and emerging tasks to combat disinformation for characterization, detection and attribution; and (3) discussing a weak supervision approach to detect disinformation with limited labeled data. We then provide an overview of the chapters in this book that represent the recent advancements in three related parts: (1) user engagements in the dissemination of information disorder; (2) techniques on detecting and mitigating disinformation; and (3) trending issues such as ethics, blockchain, clickbaits, etc. We hope this book to be a convenient entry point for researchers, practitioners, and students to understand the problems and challenges, learn state-of-the-art solutions for their specific needs, and quickly identify new research problems in their domains.
翻译：近年来,虚假信息,包括假新闻,由于其爆炸性增长,特别是社交媒体的爆炸性增长,已经成为一种全球性现象,特别是假信息和假新闻的广泛传播,可能会对社会产生不利影响。尽管最近在发现假信息和假新闻方面取得了进展,但由于其复杂性、多样性、多时制以及事实检查或批注的成本,它仍然不是三重新闻。本章的目的是通过下列途径为认识挑战和进步铺平道路:(1) 在社交媒体上引入信息混乱的类型,并检查其差异和联系;(2) 描述打击虚假信息的重要和新出现的任务,以便定性、检测和归属;(3) 讨论一种薄弱的监督方法,用有限的标签数据来发现虚假信息。然后我们概述这本书中反映最近三个相关部分进展的章节:(1) 用户参与信息混乱的传播;(2) 检测和减轻不实信息的技术;(3) 诸如道德、阻塞、点击键等趋势问题。我们希望这本书成为研究人员、从业者和学生快速了解其问题和挑战的新解决方案的方便切入点。