Scene coordinate regression has become an essential part of current camera re-localization methods. Different versions, such as regression forests and deep learning methods, have been successfully applied to estimate the corresponding camera pose given a single input image. In this work, we propose to regress the scene coordinates pixel-wise for a given RGB image by using deep learning. Compared to the recent methods, which usually employ RANSAC to obtain a robust pose estimate from the established point correspondences, we propose to regress confidences of these correspondences, which allows us to immediately discard erroneous predictions and improve the initial pose estimates. Finally, the resulting confidences can be used to score initial pose hypothesis and aid in pose refinement, offering a generalized solution to solve this task.
Human pose estimation - the process of recognizing human keypoints in a given image - is one of the most important tasks in computer vision and has a wide range of applications including movement diagnostics, surveillance, or self-driving vehicle. The accuracy of human keypoint prediction is increasingly improved thanks to the burgeoning development of deep learning. Most existing methods solved human pose estimation by generating heatmaps in which the ith heatmap indicates the location confidence of the ith keypoint. In this paper, we introduce novel network structures referred to as multiresolution representation learning for human keypoint prediction. At different resolutions in the learning process, our networks branch off and use extra layers to learn heatmap generation. We firstly consider the architectures for generating the multiresolution heatmaps after obtaining the lowest-resolution feature maps. Our second approach allows learning during the process of feature extraction in which the heatmaps are generated at each resolution of the feature extractor. The first and second approaches are referred to as multi-resolution heatmap learning and multi-resolution feature map learning respectively. Our architectures are simple yet effective, achieving good performance. We conducted experiments on two common benchmarks for human pose estimation: MS-COCO and MPII dataset.
This work focuses on mitigating two limitations in the joint learning of local feature detectors and descriptors. First, the ability to estimate the local shape (scale, orientation, etc.) of feature points is often neglected during dense feature extraction, while the shape-awareness is crucial to acquire stronger geometric invariance. Second, the localization accuracy of detected keypoints is not sufficient to reliably recover camera geometry, which has become the bottleneck in tasks such as 3D reconstruction. In this paper, we present ASLFeat, with three light-weight yet effective modifications to mitigate above issues. First, we resort to deformable convolutional networks to densely estimate and apply local transformation. Second, we take advantage of the inherent feature hierarchy to restore spatial resolution and low-level details for accurate keypoint localization. Finally, we use a peakiness measurement to relate feature responses and derive more indicative detection scores. The effect of each modification is thoroughly studied, and the evaluation is extensively conducted across a variety of practical scenarios. State-of-the-art results are reported that demonstrate the superiority of our methods.
With the rise and development of deep learning, computer vision has been tremendously transformed and reshaped. As an important research area in computer vision, scene text detection and recognition has been inescapably influenced by this wave of revolution, consequentially entering the era of deep learning. In recent years, the community has witnessed substantial advancements in mindset, approach and performance. This survey is aimed at summarizing and analyzing the major changes and significant progresses of scene text detection and recognition in the deep learning era. Through this article, we devote to: (1) introduce new insights and ideas; (2) highlight recent techniques and benchmarks; (3) look ahead into future trends. Specifically, we will emphasize the dramatic differences brought by deep learning and the grand challenges still remained. We expect that this review paper would serve as a reference book for researchers in this field. Related resources are also collected and compiled in our Github repository: https://github.com/Jyouhou/SceneTextPapers.
We develop a system for modeling hand-object interactions in 3D from RGB images that show a hand which is holding a novel object from a known category. We design a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Hand-held Object Pose and Shape estimation called HOPS-Net and utilize prior work to estimate the hand pose and configuration. We leverage the insight that information about the hand facilitates object pose and shape estimation by incorporating the hand into both training and inference of the object pose and shape as well as the refinement of the estimated pose. The network is trained on a large synthetic dataset of objects in interaction with a human hand. To bridge the gap between real and synthetic images, we employ an image-to-image translation model (Augmented CycleGAN) that generates realistically textured objects given a synthetic rendering. This provides a scalable way of generating annotated data for training HOPS-Net. Our quantitative experiments show that even noisy hand parameters significantly help object pose and shape estimation. The qualitative experiments show results of pose and shape estimation of objects held by a hand "in the wild".
Recent techniques in self-supervised monocular depth estimation are approaching the performance of supervised methods, but operate in low resolution only. We show that high resolution is key towards high-fidelity self-supervised monocular depth prediction. Inspired by recent deep learning methods for Single-Image Super-Resolution, we propose a sub-pixel convolutional layer extension for depth super-resolution that accurately synthesizes high-resolution disparities from their corresponding low-resolution convolutional features. In addition, we introduce a differentiable flip-augmentation layer that accurately fuses predictions from the image and its horizontally flipped version, reducing the effect of left and right shadow regions generated in the disparity map due to occlusions. Both contributions provide significant performance gains over the state-of-the-art in self-supervised depth and pose estimation on the public KITTI benchmark. A video of our approach can be found at https://youtu.be/jKNgBeBMx0I.
This paper implements Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique to construct a map of a given environment. A Real Time Appearance Based Mapping (RTAB-Map) approach was taken for accomplishing this task. Initially, a 2d occupancy grid and 3d octomap was created from a provided simulated environment. Next, a personal simulated environment was created for mapping as well. In this appearance based method, a process called Loop Closure is used to determine whether a robot has seen a location before or not. In this paper, it is seen that RTAB-Map is optimized for large scale and long term SLAM by using multiple strategies to allow for loop closure to be done in real time and the results depict that it can be an excellent solution for SLAM to develop robots that can map an environment in both 2d and 3d.
Image-level feature descriptors obtained from convolutional neural networks have shown powerful representation capabilities for image retrieval. In this paper, we present an unsupervised method to aggregate deep convolutional features into compact yet discriminative image vectors by simulating the dynamics of heat diffusion. A distinctive problem in image retrieval is that repetitive or bursty features tend to dominate feature representations, leading to less than ideal matches. We show that by considering each deep feature as a heat source, our method is able to avoiding over-representation of bursty features. We additionally provide a practical solution for the proposed aggregation method, which is further demonstrated in our experimental evaluation. Finally, we extensively evaluate the proposed approach with pre-trained and fine-tuned deep networks on common public benchmarks, and show superior performance compared to previous work.
Although Faster R-CNN and its variants have shown promising performance in object detection, they only exploit simple first-order representation of object proposals for final classification and regression. Recent classification methods demonstrate that the integration of high-order statistics into deep convolutional neural networks can achieve impressive improvement, but their goal is to model whole images by discarding location information so that they cannot be directly adopted to object detection. In this paper, we make an attempt to exploit high-order statistics in object detection, aiming at generating more discriminative representations for proposals to enhance the performance of detectors. To this end, we propose a novel Multi-scale Location-aware Kernel Representation (MLKP) to capture high-order statistics of deep features in proposals. Our MLKP can be efficiently computed on a modified multi-scale feature map using a low-dimensional polynomial kernel approximation.Moreover, different from existing orderless global representations based on high-order statistics, our proposed MLKP is location retentive and sensitive so that it can be flexibly adopted to object detection. Through integrating into Faster R-CNN schema, the proposed MLKP achieves very competitive performance with state-of-the-art methods, and improves Faster R-CNN by 4.9% (mAP), 4.7% (mAP) and 5.0% (AP at IOU=[0.5:0.05:0.95]) on PASCAL VOC 2007, VOC 2012 and MS COCO benchmarks, respectively. Code is available at: https://github.com/Hwang64/MLKP.
During the recent years, correlation filters have shown dominant and spectacular results for visual object tracking. The types of the features that are employed in these family of trackers significantly affect the performance of visual tracking. The ultimate goal is to utilize robust features invariant to any kind of appearance change of the object, while predicting the object location as properly as in the case of no appearance change. As the deep learning based methods have emerged, the study of learning features for specific tasks has accelerated. For instance, discriminative visual tracking methods based on deep architectures have been studied with promising performance. Nevertheless, correlation filter based (CFB) trackers confine themselves to use the pre-trained networks which are trained for object classification problem. To this end, in this manuscript the problem of learning deep fully convolutional features for the CFB visual tracking is formulated. In order to learn the proposed model, a novel and efficient backpropagation algorithm is presented based on the loss function of the network. The proposed learning framework enables the network model to be flexible for a custom design. Moreover, it alleviates the dependency on the network trained for classification. Extensive performance analysis shows the efficacy of the proposed custom design in the CFB tracking framework. By fine-tuning the convolutional parts of a state-of-the-art network and integrating this model to a CFB tracker, which is the top performing one of VOT2016, 18% increase is achieved in terms of expected average overlap, and tracking failures are decreased by 25%, while maintaining the superiority over the state-of-the-art methods in OTB-2013 and OTB-2015 tracking datasets.
In this paper we propose an effective non-rigid object tracking method based on spatial-temporal consistent saliency detection. In contrast to most existing trackers that use a bounding box to specify the tracked target, the proposed method can extract the accurate regions of the target as tracking output, which achieves better description of the non-rigid objects while reduces background pollution to the target model. Furthermore, our model has several unique features. First, a tailored deep fully convolutional neural network (TFCN) is developed to model the local saliency prior for a given image region, which not only provides the pixel-wise outputs but also integrates the semantic information. Second, a multi-scale multi-region mechanism is proposed to generate local region saliency maps that effectively consider visual perceptions with different spatial layouts and scale variations. Subsequently, these saliency maps are fused via a weighted entropy method, resulting in a final discriminative saliency map. Finally, we present a non-rigid object tracking algorithm based on the proposed saliency detection method by utilizing a spatial-temporal consistent saliency map (STCSM) model to conduct target-background classification and using a simple fine-tuning scheme for online updating. Numerous experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves competitive performance in comparison with state-of-the-art methods for both saliency detection and visual tracking, especially outperforming other related trackers on the non-rigid object tracking datasets.