We apply basic statistical reasoning to signal reconstruction by machine learning -- learning to map corrupted observations to clean signals -- with a simple and powerful conclusion: under certain common circumstances, it is possible to learn to restore signals without ever observing clean ones, at performance close or equal to training using clean exemplars. We show applications in photographic noise removal, denoising of synthetic Monte Carlo images, and reconstruction of MRI scans from undersampled inputs, all based on only observing corrupted data.

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图像复原(image restoration)即利用退化过程的先验知识,去恢复已被退化图像的本来面目。图像复原技术主要是针对成像过程中的“退化”而提出来的,而成像过程中的“退化”现象主要指成像系统受到各种因素的影响,诸如成像系统的散焦、设备与物体间存在相对运动或者是器材的固有缺陷等,导致图像的质量不能够达到理想要求。

Images or videos always contain multiple objects or actions. Multi-label recognition has been witnessed to achieve pretty performance attribute to the rapid development of deep learning technologies. Recently, graph convolution network (GCN) is leveraged to boost the performance of multi-label recognition. However, what is the best way for label correlation modeling and how feature learning can be improved with label system awareness are still unclear. In this paper, we propose a label graph superimposing framework to improve the conventional GCN+CNN framework developed for multi-label recognition in the following two aspects. Firstly, we model the label correlations by superimposing label graph built from statistical co-occurrence information into the graph constructed from knowledge priors of labels, and then multi-layer graph convolutions are applied on the final superimposed graph for label embedding abstraction. Secondly, we propose to leverage embedding of the whole label system for better representation learning. In detail, lateral connections between GCN and CNN are added at shallow, middle and deep layers to inject information of label system into backbone CNN for label-awareness in the feature learning process. Extensive experiments are carried out on MS-COCO and Charades datasets, showing that our proposed solution can greatly improve the recognition performance and achieves new state-of-the-art recognition performance.

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Few-shot image classification aims to classify unseen classes with limited labeled samples. Recent works benefit from the meta-learning process with episodic tasks and can fast adapt to class from training to testing. Due to the limited number of samples for each task, the initial embedding network for meta learning becomes an essential component and can largely affects the performance in practice. To this end, many pre-trained methods have been proposed, and most of them are trained in supervised way with limited transfer ability for unseen classes. In this paper, we proposed to train a more generalized embedding network with self-supervised learning (SSL) which can provide slow and robust representation for downstream tasks by learning from the data itself. We evaluate our work by extensive comparisons with previous baseline methods on two few-shot classification datasets ({\em i.e.,} MiniImageNet and CUB). Based on the evaluation results, the proposed method achieves significantly better performance, i.e., improve 1-shot and 5-shot tasks by nearly \textbf{3\%} and \textbf{4\%} on MiniImageNet, by nearly \textbf{9\%} and \textbf{3\%} on CUB. Moreover, the proposed method can gain the improvement of (\textbf{15\%}, \textbf{13\%}) on MiniImageNet and (\textbf{15\%}, \textbf{8\%}) on CUB by pretraining using more unlabeled data. Our code will be available at \hyperref[https://github.com/phecy/SSL-FEW-SHOT.]{https://github.com/phecy/ssl-few-shot.}

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We present a simple self-training method that achieves 87.4% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet, which is 1.0% better than the state-of-the-art model that requires 3.5B weakly labeled Instagram images. On robustness test sets, it improves ImageNet-A top-1 accuracy from 16.6% to 74.2%, reduces ImageNet-C mean corruption error from 45.7 to 31.2, and reduces ImageNet-P mean flip rate from 27.8 to 16.1. To achieve this result, we first train an EfficientNet model on labeled ImageNet images and use it as a teacher to generate pseudo labels on 300M unlabeled images. We then train a larger EfficientNet as a student model on the combination of labeled and pseudo labeled images. We iterate this process by putting back the student as the teacher. During the generation of the pseudo labels, the teacher is not noised so that the pseudo labels are as good as possible. But during the learning of the student, we inject noise such as data augmentation, dropout, stochastic depth to the student so that the noised student is forced to learn harder from the pseudo labels.

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Data augmentation is rapidly gaining attention in machine learning. Synthetic data can be generated by simple transformations or through the data distribution. In the latter case, the main challenge is to estimate the label associated to new synthetic patterns. This paper studies the effect of generating synthetic data by convex combination of patterns and the use of these as unsupervised information in a semi-supervised learning framework with support vector machines, avoiding thus the need to label synthetic examples. We perform experiments on a total of 53 binary classification datasets. Our results show that this type of data over-sampling supports the well-known cluster assumption in semi-supervised learning, showing outstanding results for small high-dimensional datasets and imbalanced learning problems.

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Existing image inpainting methods typically fill holes by borrowing information from surrounding image regions. They often produce unsatisfactory results when the holes overlap with or touch foreground objects due to lack of information about the actual extent of foreground and background regions within the holes. These scenarios, however, are very important in practice, especially for applications such as distracting object removal. To address the problem, we propose a foreground-aware image inpainting system that explicitly disentangles structure inference and content completion. Specifically, our model learns to predict the foreground contour first, and then inpaints the missing region using the predicted contour as guidance. We show that by this disentanglement, the contour completion model predicts reasonable contours of objects, and further substantially improves the performance of image inpainting. Experiments show that our method significantly outperforms existing methods and achieves superior inpainting results on challenging cases with complex compositions.

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Learning compact binary codes for image retrieval problem using deep neural networks has attracted increasing attention recently. However, training deep hashing networks is challenging due to the binary constraints on the hash codes, the similarity preserving property, and the requirement for a vast amount of labelled images. To the best of our knowledge, none of the existing methods has tackled all of these challenges completely in a unified framework. In this work, we propose a novel end-to-end deep hashing approach, which is trained to produce binary codes directly from image pixels without the need of manual annotation. In particular, we propose a novel pairwise binary constrained loss function, which simultaneously encodes the distances between pairs of hash codes, and the binary quantization error. In order to train the network with the proposed loss function, we also propose an efficient parameter learning algorithm. In addition, to provide similar/dissimilar training images to train the network, we exploit 3D models reconstructed from unlabelled images for automatic generation of enormous similar/dissimilar pairs. Extensive experiments on three image retrieval benchmark datasets demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art hashing methods on the image retrieval problem.

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Deep learning has made remarkable achievement in many fields. However, learning the parameters of neural networks usually demands a large amount of labeled data. The algorithms of deep learning, therefore, encounter difficulties when applied to supervised learning where only little data are available. This specific task is called few-shot learning. To address it, we propose a novel algorithm for few-shot learning using discrete geometry, in the sense that the samples in a class are modeled as a reduced simplex. The volume of the simplex is used for the measurement of class scatter. During testing, combined with the test sample and the points in the class, a new simplex is formed. Then the similarity between the test sample and the class can be quantized with the ratio of volumes of the new simplex to the original class simplex. Moreover, we present an approach to constructing simplices using local regions of feature maps yielded by convolutional neural networks. Experiments on Omniglot and miniImageNet verify the effectiveness of our simplex algorithm on few-shot learning.

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Humans can quickly learn new visual concepts, perhaps because they can easily visualize or imagine what novel objects look like from different views. Incorporating this ability to hallucinate novel instances of new concepts might help machine vision systems perform better low-shot learning, i.e., learning concepts from few examples. We present a novel approach to low-shot learning that uses this idea. Our approach builds on recent progress in meta-learning ("learning to learn") by combining a meta-learner with a "hallucinator" that produces additional training examples, and optimizing both models jointly. Our hallucinator can be incorporated into a variety of meta-learners and provides significant gains: up to a 6 point boost in classification accuracy when only a single training example is available, yielding state-of-the-art performance on the challenging ImageNet low-shot classification benchmark.

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Deep reinforcement learning (RL) methods generally engage in exploratory behavior through noise injection in the action space. An alternative is to add noise directly to the agent's parameters, which can lead to more consistent exploration and a richer set of behaviors. Methods such as evolutionary strategies use parameter perturbations, but discard all temporal structure in the process and require significantly more samples. Combining parameter noise with traditional RL methods allows to combine the best of both worlds. We demonstrate that both off- and on-policy methods benefit from this approach through experimental comparison of DQN, DDPG, and TRPO on high-dimensional discrete action environments as well as continuous control tasks. Our results show that RL with parameter noise learns more efficiently than traditional RL with action space noise and evolutionary strategies individually.

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With the spreading prevalence of Big Data, many advances have recently been made in this field. Frameworks such as Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark have gained a lot of traction over the past decades and have become massively popular, especially in industries. It is becoming increasingly evident that effective big data analysis is key to solving artificial intelligence problems. Thus, a multi-algorithm library was implemented in the Spark framework, called MLlib. While this library supports multiple machine learning algorithms, there is still scope to use the Spark setup efficiently for highly time-intensive and computationally expensive procedures like deep learning. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that combines the distributive computational abilities of Apache Spark and the advanced machine learning architecture of a deep multi-layer perceptron (MLP), using the popular concept of Cascade Learning. We conduct empirical analysis of our framework on two real world datasets. The results are encouraging and corroborate our proposed framework, in turn proving that it is an improvement over traditional big data analysis methods that use either Spark or Deep learning as individual elements.

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