In this paper, we propose a method of improving Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) by determining the optimal alignment of weights and inputs using dynamic programming. Conventional CNNs convolve learnable shared weights, or filters, across the input data. The filters use a linear matching of weights to inputs using an inner product between the filter and a window of the input. However, it is possible that there exists a more optimal alignment of weights. Thus, we propose the use of Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) to dynamically align the weights to optimized input elements. This dynamic alignment is useful for time series recognition due to the complexities of temporal relations and temporal distortions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed architecture on the Unipen online handwritten digit and character datasets, the UCI Spoken Arabic Digit dataset, and the UCI Activities of Daily Life dataset.

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最优化是应用数学的一个分支,主要指在一定条件限制下,选取某种研究方案使目标达到最优的一种方法。最优化问题在当今的军事、工程、管理等领域有着极其广泛的应用。

Most state-of-the-art action localization systems process each action proposal individually, without explicitly exploiting their relations during learning. However, the relations between proposals actually play an important role in action localization, since a meaningful action always consists of multiple proposals in a video. In this paper, we propose to exploit the proposal-proposal relations using Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs). First, we construct an action proposal graph, where each proposal is represented as a node and their relations between two proposals as an edge. Here, we use two types of relations, one for capturing the context information for each proposal and the other one for characterizing the correlations between distinct actions. Then we apply the GCNs over the graph to model the relations among different proposals and learn powerful representations for the action classification and localization. Experimental results show that our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art on THUMOS14 (49.1% versus 42.8%). Moreover, augmentation experiments on ActivityNet also verify the efficacy of modeling action proposal relationships. Codes are available at https://github.com/Alvin-Zeng/PGCN.

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During the last decade, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become the de facto standard for various Computer Vision and Machine Learning operations. CNNs are feed-forward Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with alternating convolutional and subsampling layers. Deep 2D CNNs with many hidden layers and millions of parameters have the ability to learn complex objects and patterns providing that they can be trained on a massive size visual database with ground-truth labels. With a proper training, this unique ability makes them the primary tool for various engineering applications for 2D signals such as images and video frames. Yet, this may not be a viable option in numerous applications over 1D signals especially when the training data is scarce or application-specific. To address this issue, 1D CNNs have recently been proposed and immediately achieved the state-of-the-art performance levels in several applications such as personalized biomedical data classification and early diagnosis, structural health monitoring, anomaly detection and identification in power electronics and motor-fault detection. Another major advantage is that a real-time and low-cost hardware implementation is feasible due to the simple and compact configuration of 1D CNNs that perform only 1D convolutions (scalar multiplications and additions). This paper presents a comprehensive review of the general architecture and principals of 1D CNNs along with their major engineering applications, especially focused on the recent progress in this field. Their state-of-the-art performance is highlighted concluding with their unique properties. The benchmark datasets and the principal 1D CNN software used in those applications are also publically shared in a dedicated website.

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Deep learning has revolutionized many machine learning tasks in recent years, ranging from image classification and video processing to speech recognition and natural language understanding. The data in these tasks are typically represented in the Euclidean space. However, there is an increasing number of applications where data are generated from non-Euclidean domains and are represented as graphs with complex relationships and interdependency between objects. The complexity of graph data has imposed significant challenges on existing machine learning algorithms. Recently, many studies on extending deep learning approaches for graph data have emerged. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive overview of graph neural networks (GNNs) in data mining and machine learning fields. We propose a new taxonomy to divide the state-of-the-art graph neural networks into different categories. With a focus on graph convolutional networks, we review alternative architectures that have recently been developed; these learning paradigms include graph attention networks, graph autoencoders, graph generative networks, and graph spatial-temporal networks. We further discuss the applications of graph neural networks across various domains and summarize the open source codes and benchmarks of the existing algorithms on different learning tasks. Finally, we propose potential research directions in this fast-growing field.

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The classification of sentences is very challenging, since sentences contain the limited contextual information. In this paper, we proposed an Attention-Gated Convolutional Neural Network (AGCNN) for sentence classification, which generates attention weights from the feature's context windows of different sizes by using specialized convolution encoders. It makes full use of limited contextual information to extract and enhance the influence of important features in predicting the sentence's category. Experimental results demonstrated that our model can achieve up to 3.1% higher accuracy than standard CNN models, and gain competitive results over the baselines on four out of the six tasks. Besides, we designed an activation function, namely, Natural Logarithm rescaled Rectified Linear Unit (NLReLU). Experiments showed that NLReLU can outperform ReLU and is comparable to other well-known activation functions on AGCNN.

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Graphs, which describe pairwise relations between objects, are essential representations of many real-world data such as social networks. In recent years, graph neural networks, which extend the neural network models to graph data, have attracted increasing attention. Graph neural networks have been applied to advance many different graph related tasks such as reasoning dynamics of the physical system, graph classification, and node classification. Most of the existing graph neural network models have been designed for static graphs, while many real-world graphs are inherently dynamic. For example, social networks are naturally evolving as new users joining and new relations being created. Current graph neural network models cannot utilize the dynamic information in dynamic graphs. However, the dynamic information has been proven to enhance the performance of many graph analytical tasks such as community detection and link prediction. Hence, it is necessary to design dedicated graph neural networks for dynamic graphs. In this paper, we propose DGNN, a new {\bf D}ynamic {\bf G}raph {\bf N}eural {\bf N}etwork model, which can model the dynamic information as the graph evolving. In particular, the proposed framework can keep updating node information by capturing the sequential information of edges, the time intervals between edges and information propagation coherently. Experimental results on various dynamic graphs demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

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We propose a Bayesian convolutional neural network built upon Bayes by Backprop and elaborate how this known method can serve as the fundamental construct of our novel, reliable variational inference method for convolutional neural networks. First, we show how Bayes by Backprop can be applied to convolutional layers where weights in filters have probability distributions instead of point-estimates; and second, how our proposed framework leads with various network architectures to performances comparable to convolutional neural networks with point-estimates weights. In the past, Bayes by Backprop has been successfully utilised in feedforward and recurrent neural networks, but not in convolutional ones. This work symbolises the extension of the group of Bayesian neural networks which encompasses all three aforementioned types of network architectures now.

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Classifying large scale networks into several categories and distinguishing them according to their fine structures is of great importance with several applications in real life. However, most studies of complex networks focus on properties of a single network but seldom on classification, clustering, and comparison between different networks, in which the network is treated as a whole. Due to the non-Euclidean properties of the data, conventional methods can hardly be applied on networks directly. In this paper, we propose a novel framework of complex network classifier (CNC) by integrating network embedding and convolutional neural network to tackle the problem of network classification. By training the classifiers on synthetic complex network data and real international trade network data, we show CNC can not only classify networks in a high accuracy and robustness, it can also extract the features of the networks automatically.

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Traditional methods for link prediction can be categorized into three main types: graph structure feature-based, latent feature-based, and explicit feature-based. Graph structure feature methods leverage some handcrafted node proximity scores, e.g., common neighbors, to estimate the likelihood of links. Latent feature methods rely on factorizing networks' matrix representations to learn an embedding for each node. Explicit feature methods train a machine learning model on two nodes' explicit attributes. Each of the three types of methods has its unique merits. In this paper, we propose SEAL (learning from Subgraphs, Embeddings, and Attributes for Link prediction), a new framework for link prediction which combines the power of all the three types into a single graph neural network (GNN). GNN is a new type of neural network which directly accepts graphs as input and outputs their labels. In SEAL, the input to the GNN is a local subgraph around each target link. We prove theoretically that our local subgraphs also reserve a great deal of high-order graph structure features related to link existence. Another key feature is that our GNN can naturally incorporate latent features and explicit features. It is achieved by concatenating node embeddings (latent features) and node attributes (explicit features) in the node information matrix for each subgraph, thus combining the three types of features to enhance GNN learning. Through extensive experiments, SEAL shows unprecedentedly strong performance against a wide range of baseline methods, including various link prediction heuristics and network embedding methods.

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We present graph attention networks (GATs), novel neural network architectures that operate on graph-structured data, leveraging masked self-attentional layers to address the shortcomings of prior methods based on graph convolutions or their approximations. By stacking layers in which nodes are able to attend over their neighborhoods' features, we enable (implicitly) specifying different weights to different nodes in a neighborhood, without requiring any kind of costly matrix operation (such as inversion) or depending on knowing the graph structure upfront. In this way, we address several key challenges of spectral-based graph neural networks simultaneously, and make our model readily applicable to inductive as well as transductive problems. Our GAT models have achieved or matched state-of-the-art results across four established transductive and inductive graph benchmarks: the Cora, Citeseer and Pubmed citation network datasets, as well as a protein-protein interaction dataset (wherein test graphs remain unseen during training).

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Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have gained significant traction in the field of machine learning, particularly due to their high accuracy in visual recognition. Recent works have pushed the performance of GPU implementations of CNNs to significantly improve their classification and training times. With these improvements, many frameworks have become available for implementing CNNs on both CPUs and GPUs, with no support for FPGA implementations. In this work we present a modified version of the popular CNN framework Caffe, with FPGA support. This allows for classification using CNN models and specialized FPGA implementations with the flexibility of reprogramming the device when necessary, seamless memory transactions between host and device, simple-to-use test benches, and the ability to create pipelined layer implementations. To validate the framework, we use the Xilinx SDAccel environment to implement an FPGA-based Winograd convolution engine and show that the FPGA layer can be used alongside other layers running on a host processor to run several popular CNNs (AlexNet, GoogleNet, VGG A, Overfeat). The results show that our framework achieves 50 GFLOPS across 3x3 convolutions in the benchmarks. This is achieved within a practical framework, which will aid in future development of FPGA-based CNNs.

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