Various deep learning models have been developed to segment anatomical structures from medical images, but they typically have poor performance when tested on another target domain with different data distribution. Recently, unsupervised domain adaptation methods have been proposed to alleviate this so-called domain shift issue, but most of them are designed for scenarios with relatively small domain shifts and are likely to fail when encountering a large domain gap. In this paper, we propose DCDA, a novel cross-modality unsupervised domain adaptation framework for tasks with large domain shifts, e.g., segmenting retinal vessels from OCTA and OCT images. DCDA mainly consists of a disentangling representation style transfer (DRST) module and a collaborative consistency learning (CCL) module. DRST decomposes images into content components and style codes and performs style transfer and image reconstruction. CCL contains two segmentation models, one for source domain and the other for target domain. The two models use labeled data (together with the corresponding transferred images) for supervised learning and perform collaborative consistency learning on unlabeled data. Each model focuses on the corresponding single domain and aims to yield an expertized domain-specific segmentation model. Through extensive experiments on retinal vessel segmentation, our framework achieves Dice scores close to target-trained oracle both from OCTA to OCT and from OCT to OCTA, significantly outperforming other state-of-the-art methods.

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While huge volumes of unlabeled data are generated and made available in many domains, the demand for automated understanding of visual data is higher than ever before. Most existing machine learning models typically rely on massive amounts of labeled training data to achieve high performance. Unfortunately, such a requirement cannot be met in real-world applications. The number of labels is limited and manually annotating data is expensive and time-consuming. It is often necessary to transfer knowledge from an existing labeled domain to a new domain. However, model performance degrades because of the differences between domains (domain shift or dataset bias). To overcome the burden of annotation, Domain Adaptation (DA) aims to mitigate the domain shift problem when transferring knowledge from one domain into another similar but different domain. Unsupervised DA (UDA) deals with a labeled source domain and an unlabeled target domain. The principal objective of UDA is to reduce the domain discrepancy between the labeled source data and unlabeled target data and to learn domain-invariant representations across the two domains during training. In this paper, we first define UDA problem. Secondly, we overview the state-of-the-art methods for different categories of UDA from both traditional methods and deep learning based methods. Finally, we collect frequently used benchmark datasets and report results of the state-of-the-art methods of UDA on visual recognition problem.

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The key challenge in learning dense correspondences lies in the lack of ground-truth matches for real image pairs. While photometric consistency losses provide unsupervised alternatives, they struggle with large appearance changes, which are ubiquitous in geometric and semantic matching tasks. Moreover, methods relying on synthetic training pairs often suffer from poor generalisation to real data. We propose Warp Consistency, an unsupervised learning objective for dense correspondence regression. Our objective is effective even in settings with large appearance and view-point changes. Given a pair of real images, we first construct an image triplet by applying a randomly sampled warp to one of the original images. We derive and analyze all flow-consistency constraints arising between the triplet. From our observations and empirical results, we design a general unsupervised objective employing two of the derived constraints. We validate our warp consistency loss by training three recent dense correspondence networks for the geometric and semantic matching tasks. Our approach sets a new state-of-the-art on several challenging benchmarks, including MegaDepth, RobotCar and TSS. Code and models will be released at https://github.com/PruneTruong/DenseMatching.

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Self-supervised learning has been widely used to obtain transferrable representations from unlabeled images. Especially, recent contrastive learning methods have shown impressive performances on downstream image classification tasks. While these contrastive methods mainly focus on generating invariant global representations at the image-level under semantic-preserving transformations, they are prone to overlook spatial consistency of local representations and therefore have a limitation in pretraining for localization tasks such as object detection and instance segmentation. Moreover, aggressively cropped views used in existing contrastive methods can minimize representation distances between the semantically different regions of a single image. In this paper, we propose a spatially consistent representation learning algorithm (SCRL) for multi-object and location-specific tasks. In particular, we devise a novel self-supervised objective that tries to produce coherent spatial representations of a randomly cropped local region according to geometric translations and zooming operations. On various downstream localization tasks with benchmark datasets, the proposed SCRL shows significant performance improvements over the image-level supervised pretraining as well as the state-of-the-art self-supervised learning methods.

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While recent studies on semi-supervised learning have shown remarkable progress in leveraging both labeled and unlabeled data, most of them presume a basic setting of the model is randomly initialized. In this work, we consider semi-supervised learning and transfer learning jointly, leading to a more practical and competitive paradigm that can utilize both powerful pre-trained models from source domain as well as labeled/unlabeled data in the target domain. To better exploit the value of both pre-trained weights and unlabeled target examples, we introduce adaptive consistency regularization that consists of two complementary components: Adaptive Knowledge Consistency (AKC) on the examples between the source and target model, and Adaptive Representation Consistency (ARC) on the target model between labeled and unlabeled examples. Examples involved in the consistency regularization are adaptively selected according to their potential contributions to the target task. We conduct extensive experiments on several popular benchmarks including CUB-200-2011, MIT Indoor-67, MURA, by fine-tuning the ImageNet pre-trained ResNet-50 model. Results show that our proposed adaptive consistency regularization outperforms state-of-the-art semi-supervised learning techniques such as Pseudo Label, Mean Teacher, and MixMatch. Moreover, our algorithm is orthogonal to existing methods and thus able to gain additional improvements on top of MixMatch and FixMatch. Our code is available at https://github.com/SHI-Labs/Semi-Supervised-Transfer-Learning.

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In this paper, we tackle the unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) for semantic segmentation, which aims to segment the unlabeled real data using labeled synthetic data. The main problem of UDA for semantic segmentation relies on reducing the domain gap between the real image and synthetic image. To solve this problem, we focused on separating information in an image into content and style. Here, only the content has cues for semantic segmentation, and the style makes the domain gap. Thus, precise separation of content and style in an image leads to effect as supervision of real data even when learning with synthetic data. To make the best of this effect, we propose a zero-style loss. Even though we perfectly extract content for semantic segmentation in the real domain, another main challenge, the class imbalance problem, still exists in UDA for semantic segmentation. We address this problem by transferring the contents of tail classes from synthetic to real domain. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance in semantic segmentation on the major two UDA settings.

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Visual and audio modalities are highly correlated, yet they contain different information. Their strong correlation makes it possible to predict the semantics of one from the other with good accuracy. Their intrinsic differences make cross-modal prediction a potentially more rewarding pretext task for self-supervised learning of video and audio representations compared to within-modality learning. Based on this intuition, we propose Cross-Modal Deep Clustering (XDC), a novel self-supervised method that leverages unsupervised clustering in one modality (e.g., audio) as a supervisory signal for the other modality (e.g., video). This cross-modal supervision helps XDC utilize the semantic correlation and the differences between the two modalities. Our experiments show that XDC outperforms single-modality clustering and other multi-modal variants. XDC achieves state-of-the-art accuracy among self-supervised methods on multiple video and audio benchmarks. Most importantly, our video model pretrained on large-scale unlabeled data significantly outperforms the same model pretrained with full-supervision on ImageNet and Kinetics for action recognition on HMDB51 and UCF101. To the best of our knowledge, XDC is the first self-supervised learning method that outperforms large-scale fully-supervised pretraining for action recognition on the same architecture.

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We aim at the problem named One-Shot Unsupervised Domain Adaptation. Unlike traditional Unsupervised Domain Adaptation, it assumes that only one unlabeled target sample can be available when learning to adapt. This setting is realistic but more challenging, in which conventional adaptation approaches are prone to failure due to the scarce of unlabeled target data. To this end, we propose a novel Adversarial Style Mining approach, which combines the style transfer module and task-specific module into an adversarial manner. Specifically, the style transfer module iteratively searches for harder stylized images around the one-shot target sample according to the current learning state, leading the task model to explore the potential styles that are difficult to solve in the almost unseen target domain, thus boosting the adaptation performance in a data-scarce scenario. The adversarial learning framework makes the style transfer module and task-specific module benefit each other during the competition. Extensive experiments on both cross-domain classification and segmentation benchmarks verify that ASM achieves state-of-the-art adaptation performance under the challenging one-shot setting.

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Convolutional networks (ConvNets) have achieved great successes in various challenging vision tasks. However, the performance of ConvNets would degrade when encountering the domain shift. The domain adaptation is more significant while challenging in the field of biomedical image analysis, where cross-modality data have largely different distributions. Given that annotating the medical data is especially expensive, the supervised transfer learning approaches are not quite optimal. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised domain adaptation framework with adversarial learning for cross-modality biomedical image segmentations. Specifically, our model is based on a dilated fully convolutional network for pixel-wise prediction. Moreover, we build a plug-and-play domain adaptation module (DAM) to map the target input to features which are aligned with source domain feature space. A domain critic module (DCM) is set up for discriminating the feature space of both domains. We optimize the DAM and DCM via an adversarial loss without using any target domain label. Our proposed method is validated by adapting a ConvNet trained with MRI images to unpaired CT data for cardiac structures segmentations, and achieved very promising results.

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Deep Convolutional Neural Networks have pushed the state-of-the art for semantic segmentation provided that a large amount of images together with pixel-wise annotations is available. Data collection is expensive and a solution to alleviate it is to use transfer learning. This reduces the amount of annotated data required for the network training but it does not get rid of this heavy processing step. We propose a method of transfer learning without annotations on the target task for datasets with redundant content and distinct pixel distributions. Our method takes advantage of the approximate content alignment of the images between two datasets when the approximation error prevents the reuse of annotation from one dataset to another. Given the annotations for only one dataset, we train a first network in a supervised manner. This network autonomously learns to generate deep data representations relevant to the semantic segmentation. Then the images in the new dataset, we train a new network to generate a deep data representation that matches the one from the first network on the previous dataset. The training consists in a regression between feature maps and does not require any annotations on the new dataset. We show that this method reaches performances similar to a classic transfer learning on the PASCAL VOC dataset with synthetic transformations.

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Person re-identification (re-ID) models trained on one domain often fail to generalize well to another. In our attempt, we present a "learning via translation" framework. In the baseline, we translate the labeled images from source to target domain in an unsupervised manner. We then train re-ID models with the translated images by supervised methods. Yet, being an essential part of this framework, unsupervised image-image translation suffers from the information loss of source-domain labels during translation. Our motivation is two-fold. First, for each image, the discriminative cues contained in its ID label should be maintained after translation. Second, given the fact that two domains have entirely different persons, a translated image should be dissimilar to any of the target IDs. To this end, we propose to preserve two types of unsupervised similarities, 1) self-similarity of an image before and after translation, and 2) domain-dissimilarity of a translated source image and a target image. Both constraints are implemented in the similarity preserving generative adversarial network (SPGAN) which consists of a Siamese network and a CycleGAN. Through domain adaptation experiment, we show that images generated by SPGAN are more suitable for domain adaptation and yield consistent and competitive re-ID accuracy on two large-scale datasets.

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