Recent advance in fluorescence microscopy enables acquisition of 3D image volumes with better quality and deeper penetration into tissue. Segmentation is a required step to characterize and analyze biological structures in the images. 3D segmentation using deep learning has achieved promising results in microscopy images. One issue is that deep learning techniques require a large set of groundtruth data which is impractical to annotate manually for microscopy volumes. This paper describes a 3D nuclei segmentation method using 3D convolutional neural networks. A set of synthetic volumes and the corresponding groundtruth volumes are generated automatically using a generative adversarial network. Segmentation results demonstrate that our proposed method is capable of segmenting nuclei successfully in 3D for various data sets.
Sufficient supervised information is crucial for any machine learning models to boost performance. However, labeling data is expensive and sometimes difficult to obtain. Active learning is an approach to acquire annotations for data from a human oracle by selecting informative samples with a high probability to enhance performance. In recent emerging studies, a generative adversarial network (GAN) has been integrated with active learning to generate good candidates to be presented to the oracle. In this paper, we propose a novel model that is able to obtain labels for data in a cheaper manner without the need to query an oracle. In the model, a novel reward for each sample is devised to measure the degree of uncertainty, which is obtained from a classifier trained with existing labeled data. This reward is used to guide a conditional GAN to generate informative samples with a higher probability for a certain label. With extensive evaluations, we have confirmed the effectiveness of the model, showing that the generated samples are capable of improving the classification performance in popular image classification tasks.
Accurate segmentation of the prostate from magnetic resonance (MR) images provides useful information for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, automated prostate segmentation from 3D MR images still faces several challenges. For instance, a lack of clear edge between the prostate and other anatomical structures makes it challenging to accurately extract the boundaries. The complex background texture and large variation in size, shape and intensity distribution of the prostate itself make segmentation even further complicated. With deep learning, especially convolutional neural networks (CNNs), emerging as commonly used methods for medical image segmentation, the difficulty in obtaining large number of annotated medical images for training CNNs has become much more pronounced that ever before. Since large-scale dataset is one of the critical components for the success of deep learning, lack of sufficient training data makes it difficult to fully train complex CNNs. To tackle the above challenges, in this paper, we propose a boundary-weighted domain adaptive neural network (BOWDA-Net). To make the network more sensitive to the boundaries during segmentation, a boundary-weighted segmentation loss (BWL) is proposed. Furthermore, an advanced boundary-weighted transfer leaning approach is introduced to address the problem of small medical imaging datasets. We evaluate our proposed model on the publicly available MICCAI 2012 Prostate MR Image Segmentation (PROMISE12) challenge dataset. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model is more sensitive to boundary information and outperformed other state-of-the-art methods.
Semantic segmentation is one of the basic topics in computer vision, it aims to assign semantic labels to every pixel of an image. Unbalanced semantic label distribution could have a negative influence on segmentation accuracy. In this paper, we investigate using data augmentation approach to balance the semantic label distribution in order to improve segmentation performance. We propose using generative adversarial networks (GANs) to generate realistic images for improving the performance of semantic segmentation networks. Experimental results show that the proposed method can not only improve segmentation performance on those classes with low accuracy, but also obtain 1.3% to 2.1% increase in average segmentation accuracy. It shows that this augmentation method can boost accuracy and be easily applicable to any other segmentation models.
In this paper, we describe how to apply image-to-image translation techniques to medical blood smear data to generate new data samples and meaningfully increase small datasets. Specifically, given the segmentation mask of the microscopy image, we are able to generate photorealistic images of blood cells which are further used alongside real data during the network training for segmentation and object detection tasks. This image data generation approach is based on conditional generative adversarial networks which have proven capabilities to high-quality image synthesis. In addition to synthesizing blood images, we synthesize segmentation mask as well which leads to a diverse variety of generated samples. The effectiveness of the technique is thoroughly analyzed and quantified through a number of experiments on a manually collected and annotated dataset of blood smear taken under a microscope.
In this paper, we propose Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) architectures that use Capsule Networks for image-synthesis. Based on the principal of positional-equivariance of features, Capsule Network's ability to encode spatial relationships between the features of the image helps it become a more powerful critic in comparison to Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) used in current architectures for image synthesis. Our proposed GAN architectures learn the data manifold much faster and therefore, synthesize visually accurate images in significantly lesser number of training samples and training epochs in comparison to GANs and its variants that use CNNs. Apart from analyzing the quantitative results corresponding the images generated by different architectures, we also explore the reasons for the lower coverage and diversity explored by the GAN architectures that use CNN critics.
We address the problem of segmenting 3D multi-modal medical images in scenarios where very few labeled examples are available for training. Leveraging the recent success of adversarial learning for semi-supervised segmentation, we propose a novel method based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to train a segmentation model with both labeled and unlabeled images. The proposed method prevents over-fitting by learning to discriminate between true and fake patches obtained by a generator network. Our work extends current adversarial learning approaches, which focus on 2D single-modality images, to the more challenging context of 3D volumes of multiple modalities. The proposed method is evaluated on the problem of segmenting brain MRI from the iSEG-2017 and MRBrainS 2013 datasets. Significant performance improvement is reported, compared to state-of-art segmentation networks trained in a fully-supervised manner. In addition, our work presents a comprehensive analysis of different GAN architectures for semi-supervised segmentation, showing recent techniques like feature matching to yield a higher performance than conventional adversarial training approaches. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/arnab39/FewShot_GAN-Unet3D
In this paper, we propose a novel conditional generative adversarial nets based image captioning framework as an extension of traditional reinforcement learning (RL) based encoder-decoder architecture. To deal with the inconsistent evaluation problem between objective language metrics and subjective human judgements, we are inspired to design some "discriminator" networks to automatically and progressively determine whether generated caption is human described or machine generated. Two kinds of discriminator architecture (CNN and RNN based structures) are introduced since each has its own advantages. The proposed algorithm is generic so that it can enhance any existing encoder-decoder based image captioning model and we show that conventional RL training method is just a special case of our framework. Empirically, we show consistent improvements over all language evaluation metrics for different stage-of-the-art image captioning models.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) convergence in a high-resolution setting with a computational constrain of GPU memory capacity (from 12GB to 24 GB) has been beset with difficulty due to the known lack of convergence rate stability. In order to boost network convergence of DCGAN (Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks) and achieve good-looking high-resolution results we propose a new layered network structure, HDCGAN, that incorporates current state-of-the-art techniques for this effect. A novel dataset, Curt\'o Zarza (CZ), containing human faces from different ethnical groups in a wide variety of illumination conditions and image resolutions is introduced. CZ is enhanced with HDCGAN synthetic images, thus being the first GAN augmented face dataset. We conduct extensive experiments on CelebA and CZ.
Recent advances in 3D fully convolutional networks (FCN) have made it feasible to produce dense voxel-wise predictions of volumetric images. In this work, we show that a multi-class 3D FCN trained on manually labeled CT scans of several anatomical structures (ranging from the large organs to thin vessels) can achieve competitive segmentation results, while avoiding the need for handcrafting features or training class-specific models. To this end, we propose a two-stage, coarse-to-fine approach that will first use a 3D FCN to roughly define a candidate region, which will then be used as input to a second 3D FCN. This reduces the number of voxels the second FCN has to classify to ~10% and allows it to focus on more detailed segmentation of the organs and vessels. We utilize training and validation sets consisting of 331 clinical CT images and test our models on a completely unseen data collection acquired at a different hospital that includes 150 CT scans, targeting three anatomical organs (liver, spleen, and pancreas). In challenging organs such as the pancreas, our cascaded approach improves the mean Dice score from 68.5 to 82.2%, achieving the highest reported average score on this dataset. We compare with a 2D FCN method on a separate dataset of 240 CT scans with 18 classes and achieve a significantly higher performance in small organs and vessels. Furthermore, we explore fine-tuning our models to different datasets. Our experiments illustrate the promise and robustness of current 3D FCN based semantic segmentation of medical images, achieving state-of-the-art results. Our code and trained models are available for download: https://github.com/holgerroth/3Dunet_abdomen_cascade.
Inspired by recent development of artificial satellite, remote sensing images have attracted extensive attention. Recently, noticeable progress has been made in scene classification and target detection.However, it is still not clear how to describe the remote sensing image content with accurate and concise sentences. In this paper, we investigate to describe the remote sensing images with accurate and flexible sentences. First, some annotated instructions are presented to better describe the remote sensing images considering the special characteristics of remote sensing images. Second, in order to exhaustively exploit the contents of remote sensing images, a large-scale aerial image data set is constructed for remote sensing image caption. Finally, a comprehensive review is presented on the proposed data set to fully advance the task of remote sensing caption. Extensive experiments on the proposed data set demonstrate that the content of the remote sensing image can be completely described by generating language descriptions. The data set is available at https://github.com/201528014227051/RSICD_optimal