In classification tasks, the classification accuracy diminishes when the data is gathered in different domains. To address this problem, in this paper, we investigate several adversarial models for domain adaptation (DA) and their effect on the acoustic scene classification task. The studied models include several types of generative adversarial networks (GAN), with different loss functions, and the so-called cycle GAN which consists of two interconnected GAN models. The experiments are performed on the DCASE20 challenge task 1A dataset, in which we can leverage the paired examples of data recorded using different devices, i.e., the source and target domain recordings. The results of performed experiments indicate that the best performing domain adaptation can be obtained using the cycle GAN, which achieves as much as 66% relative improvement in accuracy for the target domain device, while only 6\% relative decrease in accuracy on the source domain. In addition, by utilizing the paired data examples, we are able to improve the overall accuracy over the model trained using larger unpaired data set, while decreasing the computational cost of the model training.
Weakly-supervised learning has become a popular technology in recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel medical image classification algorithm, called Weakly-Supervised Generative Adversarial Networks (WSGAN), which only uses a small number of real images without labels to generate fake images or mask images to enlarge the sample size of the training set. First, we combine with MixMatch to generate pseudo labels for the fake images and unlabeled images to do the classification. Second, contrastive learning and self-attention mechanism are introduced into the proposed problem to enhance the classification accuracy. Third, the problem of mode collapse is well addressed by cyclic consistency loss. Finally, we design global and local classifiers to complement each other with the key information needed for classification. The experimental results on four medical image datasets show that WSGAN can obtain relatively high learning performance by using few labeled and unlabeled data. For example, the classification accuracy of WSGAN is 11% higher than that of the second-ranked MIXMATCH with 100 labeled images and 1000 unlabeled images on the OCT dataset. In addition, we also conduct ablation experiments to verify the effectiveness of our algorithm.
Unsupervised domain adaptation, which involves transferring knowledge from a label-rich source domain to an unlabeled target domain, can be used to substantially reduce annotation costs in the field of object detection. In this study, we demonstrate that adversarial training in the source domain can be employed as a new approach for unsupervised domain adaptation. Specifically, we establish that adversarially trained detectors achieve improved detection performance in target domains that are significantly shifted from source domains. This phenomenon is attributed to the fact that adversarially trained detectors can be used to extract robust features that are in alignment with human perception and worth transferring across domains while discarding domain-specific non-robust features. In addition, we propose a method that combines adversarial training and feature alignment to ensure the improved alignment of robust features with the target domain. We conduct experiments on four benchmark datasets and confirm the effectiveness of our proposed approach on large domain shifts from real to artistic images. Compared to the baseline models, the adversarially trained detectors improve the mean average precision by up to 7.7%, and further by up to 11.8% when feature alignments are incorporated. Although our method degrades performance for small domain shifts, quantification of the domain shift based on the Frechet distance allows us to determine whether adversarial training should be conducted.
Adapting semantic segmentation models to new domains is an important but challenging problem. Recently enlightening progress has been made, but the performance of existing methods are unsatisfactory on real datasets where the new target domain comprises of heterogeneous sub-domains (e.g., diverse weather characteristics). We point out that carefully reasoning about the multiple modalities in the target domain can improve the robustness of adaptation models. To this end, we propose a condition-guided adaptation framework that is empowered by a special attentive progressive adversarial training (APAT) mechanism and a novel self-training policy. The APAT strategy progressively performs condition-specific alignment and attentive global feature matching. The new self-training scheme exploits the adversarial ambivalences of easy and hard adaptation regions and the correlations among target sub-domains effectively. We evaluate our method (DCAA) on various adaptation scenarios where the target images vary in weather conditions. The comparisons against baselines and the state-of-the-art approaches demonstrate the superiority of DCAA over the competitors.
While existing work in robust deep learning has focused on small pixel-level $\ell_p$ norm-based perturbations, this may not account for perturbations encountered in several real world settings. In many such cases although test data might not be available, broad specifications about the types of perturbations (such as an unknown degree of rotation) may be known. We consider a setup where robustness is expected over an unseen test domain that is not i.i.d. but deviates from the training domain. While this deviation may not be exactly known, its broad characterization is specified a priori, in terms of attributes. We propose an adversarial training approach which learns to generate new samples so as to maximize exposure of the classifier to the attributes-space, without having access to the data from the test domain. Our adversarial training solves a min-max optimization problem, with the inner maximization generating adversarial perturbations, and the outer minimization finding model parameters by optimizing the loss on adversarial perturbations generated from the inner maximization. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of naturally occurring perturbations -- object-related shifts, geometric transformations, and common image corruptions. Our approach enables deep neural networks to be robust against a wide range of naturally occurring perturbations. We demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach by showing the robustness gains of deep neural networks trained using our adversarial training on MNIST, CIFAR-10, and a new variant of the CLEVR dataset.
We aim at the problem named One-Shot Unsupervised Domain Adaptation. Unlike traditional Unsupervised Domain Adaptation, it assumes that only one unlabeled target sample can be available when learning to adapt. This setting is realistic but more challenging, in which conventional adaptation approaches are prone to failure due to the scarce of unlabeled target data. To this end, we propose a novel Adversarial Style Mining approach, which combines the style transfer module and task-specific module into an adversarial manner. Specifically, the style transfer module iteratively searches for harder stylized images around the one-shot target sample according to the current learning state, leading the task model to explore the potential styles that are difficult to solve in the almost unseen target domain, thus boosting the adaptation performance in a data-scarce scenario. The adversarial learning framework makes the style transfer module and task-specific module benefit each other during the competition. Extensive experiments on both cross-domain classification and segmentation benchmarks verify that ASM achieves state-of-the-art adaptation performance under the challenging one-shot setting.
Meta-learning enables a model to learn from very limited data to undertake a new task. In this paper, we study the general meta-learning with adversarial samples. We present a meta-learning algorithm, ADML (ADversarial Meta-Learner), which leverages clean and adversarial samples to optimize the initialization of a learning model in an adversarial manner. ADML leads to the following desirable properties: 1) it turns out to be very effective even in the cases with only clean samples; 2) it is model-agnostic, i.e., it is compatible with any learning model that can be trained with gradient descent; and most importantly, 3) it is robust to adversarial samples, i.e., unlike other meta-learning methods, it only leads to a minor performance degradation when there are adversarial samples. We show via extensive experiments that ADML delivers the state-of-the-art performance on two widely-used image datasets, MiniImageNet and CIFAR100, in terms of both accuracy and robustness.
Convolutional networks (ConvNets) have achieved great successes in various challenging vision tasks. However, the performance of ConvNets would degrade when encountering the domain shift. The domain adaptation is more significant while challenging in the field of biomedical image analysis, where cross-modality data have largely different distributions. Given that annotating the medical data is especially expensive, the supervised transfer learning approaches are not quite optimal. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised domain adaptation framework with adversarial learning for cross-modality biomedical image segmentations. Specifically, our model is based on a dilated fully convolutional network for pixel-wise prediction. Moreover, we build a plug-and-play domain adaptation module (DAM) to map the target input to features which are aligned with source domain feature space. A domain critic module (DCM) is set up for discriminating the feature space of both domains. We optimize the DAM and DCM via an adversarial loss without using any target domain label. Our proposed method is validated by adapting a ConvNet trained with MRI images to unpaired CT data for cardiac structures segmentations, and achieved very promising results.
In this paper, we propose the Cross-Domain Adversarial Auto-Encoder (CDAAE) to address the problem of cross-domain image inference, generation and transformation. We make the assumption that images from different domains share the same latent code space for content, while having separate latent code space for style. The proposed framework can map cross-domain data to a latent code vector consisting of a content part and a style part. The latent code vector is matched with a prior distribution so that we can generate meaningful samples from any part of the prior space. Consequently, given a sample of one domain, our framework can generate various samples of the other domain with the same content of the input. This makes the proposed framework different from the current work of cross-domain transformation. Besides, the proposed framework can be trained with both labeled and unlabeled data, which makes it also suitable for domain adaptation. Experimental results on data sets SVHN, MNIST and CASIA show the proposed framework achieved visually appealing performance for image generation task. Besides, we also demonstrate the proposed method achieved superior results for domain adaptation. Code of our experiments is available in https://github.com/luckycallor/CDAAE.
Domain Adaptation is an actively researched problem in Computer Vision. In this work, we propose an approach that leverages unsupervised data to bring the source and target distributions closer in a learned joint feature space. We accomplish this by inducing a symbiotic relationship between the learned embedding and a generative adversarial network. This is in contrast to methods which use the adversarial framework for realistic data generation and retraining deep models with such data. We demonstrate the strength and generality of our approach by performing experiments on three different tasks with varying levels of difficulty: (1) Digit classification (MNIST, SVHN and USPS datasets) (2) Object recognition using OFFICE dataset and (3) Domain adaptation from synthetic to real data. Our method achieves state-of-the art performance in most experimental settings and by far the only GAN-based method that has been shown to work well across different datasets such as OFFICE and DIGITS.
In this paper, we propose an improved quantitative evaluation framework for Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) on generating domain-specific images, where we improve conventional evaluation methods on two levels: the feature representation and the evaluation metric. Unlike most existing evaluation frameworks which transfer the representation of ImageNet inception model to map images onto the feature space, our framework uses a specialized encoder to acquire fine-grained domain-specific representation. Moreover, for datasets with multiple classes, we propose Class-Aware Frechet Distance (CAFD), which employs a Gaussian mixture model on the feature space to better fit the multi-manifold feature distribution. Experiments and analysis on both the feature level and the image level were conducted to demonstrate improvements of our proposed framework over the recently proposed state-of-the-art FID method. To our best knowledge, we are the first to provide counter examples where FID gives inconsistent results with human judgments. It is shown in the experiments that our framework is able to overcome the shortness of FID and improves robustness. Code will be made available.