Learning curves model a classifier's test error as a function of the number of training samples. Prior works show that learning curves can be used to select model parameters and extrapolate performance. We investigate how to use learning curves to evaluate design choices, such as pretraining, architecture, and data augmentation. We propose a method to robustly estimate learning curves, abstract their parameters into error and data-reliance, and evaluate the effectiveness of different parameterizations. Our experiments exemplify use of learning curves for analysis and yield several interesting observations.

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Networking:IFIP International Conferences on Networking。 Explanation:国际网络会议。 Publisher:IFIP。 SIT: http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/networking/index.html

We describe the new field of mathematical analysis of deep learning. This field emerged around a list of research questions that were not answered within the classical framework of learning theory. These questions concern: the outstanding generalization power of overparametrized neural networks, the role of depth in deep architectures, the apparent absence of the curse of dimensionality, the surprisingly successful optimization performance despite the non-convexity of the problem, understanding what features are learned, why deep architectures perform exceptionally well in physical problems, and which fine aspects of an architecture affect the behavior of a learning task in which way. We present an overview of modern approaches that yield partial answers to these questions. For selected approaches, we describe the main ideas in more detail.

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Pairwise learning focuses on learning tasks with pairwise loss functions, which depend on pairs of training instances, and naturally fits for modeling relationships between pairs of samples. In this paper, we focus on the privacy of pairwise learning and propose a new differential privacy paradigm for pairwise learning, based on gradient perturbation. We analyze the privacy guarantees from two points of view: the $\ell_2$-sensitivity and the moments accountant method. We further analyze the generalization error, the excess empirical risk, and the excess population risk of our proposed method and give corresponding bounds. By introducing algorithmic stability theory to pairwise differential privacy, our theoretical analysis does not require convex pairwise loss functions, which means that our method is general to both convex and non-convex conditions. Under these circumstances, the utility bounds are better than previous bounds under convexity or strongly convexity assumption, which is an attractive result.

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Recurrent Neural networks (RNN) have shown promising potential for learning dynamics of sequential data. However, artificial neural networks are known to exhibit poor robustness in presence of input noise, where the sequential architecture of RNNs exacerbates the problem. In this paper, we will use ideas from control and estimation theories to propose a tractable robustness analysis for RNN models that are subject to input noise. The variance of the output of the noisy system is adopted as a robustness measure to quantify the impact of noise on learning. It is shown that the robustness measure can be estimated efficiently using linearization techniques. Using these results, we proposed a learning method to enhance robustness of a RNN with respect to exogenous Gaussian noise with known statistics. Our extensive simulations on benchmark problems reveal that our proposed methodology significantly improves robustness of recurrent neural networks.

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Total lung volume is an important quantitative biomarker and is used for the assessment of restrictive lung diseases. In this study, we investigate the performance of several deep-learning approaches for automated measurement of total lung volume from chest radiographs. 7621 posteroanterior and lateral view chest radiographs (CXR) were collected from patients with chest CT available. Similarly, 928 CXR studies were chosen from patients with pulmonary function test (PFT) results. The reference total lung volume was calculated from lung segmentation on CT or PFT data, respectively. This dataset was used to train deep-learning architectures to predict total lung volume from chest radiographs. The experiments were constructed in a step-wise fashion with increasing complexity to demonstrate the effect of training with CT-derived labels only and the sources of error. The optimal models were tested on 291 CXR studies with reference lung volume obtained from PFT. The optimal deep-learning regression model showed an MAE of 408 ml and a MAPE of 8.1\% and Pearson's r = 0.92 using both frontal and lateral chest radiographs as input. CT-derived labels were useful for pre-training but the optimal performance was obtained by fine-tuning the network with PFT-derived labels. We demonstrate, for the first time, that state-of-the-art deep learning solutions can accurately measure total lung volume from plain chest radiographs. The proposed model can be used to obtain total lung volume from routinely acquired chest radiographs at no additional cost and could be a useful tool to identify trends over time in patients referred regularly for chest x-rays.

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In information retrieval (IR) and related tasks, term weighting approaches typically consider the frequency of the term in the document and in the collection in order to compute a score reflecting the importance of the term for the document. In tasks characterized by the presence of training data (such as text classification) it seems logical that the term weighting function should take into account the distribution (as estimated from training data) of the term across the classes of interest. Although `supervised term weighting' approaches that use this intuition have been described before, they have failed to show consistent improvements. In this article we analyse the possible reasons for this failure, and call consolidated assumptions into question. Following this criticism we propose a novel supervised term weighting approach that, instead of relying on any predefined formula, learns a term weighting function optimised on the training set of interest; we dub this approach \emph{Learning to Weight} (LTW). The experiments that we run on several well-known benchmarks, and using different learning methods, show that our method outperforms previous term weighting approaches in text classification.

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Efficient exploration remains a major challenge for reinforcement learning. One reason is that the variability of the returns often depends on the current state and action, and is therefore heteroscedastic. Classical exploration strategies such as upper confidence bound algorithms and Thompson sampling fail to appropriately account for heteroscedasticity, even in the bandit setting. Motivated by recent findings that address this issue in bandits, we propose to use Information-Directed Sampling (IDS) for exploration in reinforcement learning. As our main contribution, we build on recent advances in distributional reinforcement learning and propose a novel, tractable approximation of IDS for deep Q-learning. The resulting exploration strategy explicitly accounts for both parametric uncertainty and heteroscedastic observation noise. We evaluate our method on Atari games and demonstrate a significant improvement over alternative approaches.

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Deep learning (DL) is a high dimensional data reduction technique for constructing high-dimensional predictors in input-output models. DL is a form of machine learning that uses hierarchical layers of latent features. In this article, we review the state-of-the-art of deep learning from a modeling and algorithmic perspective. We provide a list of successful areas of applications in Artificial Intelligence (AI), Image Processing, Robotics and Automation. Deep learning is predictive in its nature rather then inferential and can be viewed as a black-box methodology for high-dimensional function estimation.

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Recent years have witnessed significant progresses in deep Reinforcement Learning (RL). Empowered with large scale neural networks, carefully designed architectures, novel training algorithms and massively parallel computing devices, researchers are able to attack many challenging RL problems. However, in machine learning, more training power comes with a potential risk of more overfitting. As deep RL techniques are being applied to critical problems such as healthcare and finance, it is important to understand the generalization behaviors of the trained agents. In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of standard RL agents and find that they could overfit in various ways. Moreover, overfitting could happen "robustly": commonly used techniques in RL that add stochasticity do not necessarily prevent or detect overfitting. In particular, the same agents and learning algorithms could have drastically different test performance, even when all of them achieve optimal rewards during training. The observations call for more principled and careful evaluation protocols in RL. We conclude with a general discussion on overfitting in RL and a study of the generalization behaviors from the perspective of inductive bias.

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We introduce a guide to help deep learning practitioners understand and manipulate convolutional neural network architectures. The guide clarifies the relationship between various properties (input shape, kernel shape, zero padding, strides and output shape) of convolutional, pooling and transposed convolutional layers, as well as the relationship between convolutional and transposed convolutional layers. Relationships are derived for various cases, and are illustrated in order to make them intuitive.

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Image segmentation is considered to be one of the critical tasks in hyperspectral remote sensing image processing. Recently, convolutional neural network (CNN) has established itself as a powerful model in segmentation and classification by demonstrating excellent performances. The use of a graphical model such as a conditional random field (CRF) contributes further in capturing contextual information and thus improving the segmentation performance. In this paper, we propose a method to segment hyperspectral images by considering both spectral and spatial information via a combined framework consisting of CNN and CRF. We use multiple spectral cubes to learn deep features using CNN, and then formulate deep CRF with CNN-based unary and pairwise potential functions to effectively extract the semantic correlations between patches consisting of three-dimensional data cubes. Effective piecewise training is applied in order to avoid the computationally expensive iterative CRF inference. Furthermore, we introduce a deep deconvolution network that improves the segmentation masks. We also introduce a new dataset and experimented our proposed method on it along with several widely adopted benchmark datasets to evaluate the effectiveness of our method. By comparing our results with those from several state-of-the-art models, we show the promising potential of our method.

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