In this paper we introduce the SchemaDB data-set; a collection of relational database schemata in both sql and graph formats. Databases are not commonly shared publicly for reasons of privacy and security, so schemata are not available for study. Consequently, an understanding of database structures in the wild is lacking, and most examples found publicly belong to common development frameworks or are derived from textbooks or engine benchmark designs. SchemaDB contains 2,500 samples of relational schemata found in public repositories which we have standardised to MySQL syntax. We provide our gathering and transformation methodology, summary statistics, and structural analysis, and discuss potential downstream research tasks in several domains.
Causality can be described in terms of a structural causal model (SCM) that carries information on the variables of interest and their mechanistic relations. For most processes of interest the underlying SCM will only be partially observable, thus causal inference tries to leverage any exposed information. Graph neural networks (GNN) as universal approximators on structured input pose a viable candidate for causal learning, suggesting a tighter integration with SCM. To this effect we present a theoretical analysis from first principles that establishes a novel connection between GNN and SCM while providing an extended view on general neural-causal models. We then establish a new model class for GNN-based causal inference that is necessary and sufficient for causal effect identification. Our empirical illustration on simulations and standard benchmarks validate our theoretical proofs.
Knowledge is a formal way of understanding the world, providing a human-level cognition and intelligence for the next-generation artificial intelligence (AI). One of the representations of knowledge is the structural relations between entities. An effective way to automatically acquire this important knowledge, called Relation Extraction (RE), a sub-task of information extraction, plays a vital role in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Its purpose is to identify semantic relations between entities from natural language text. To date, there are several studies for RE in previous works, which have documented these techniques based on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) become a prevailing technique in this research. Especially, the supervised and distant supervision methods based on DNNs are the most popular and reliable solutions for RE. This article 1)introduces some general concepts, and further 2)gives a comprehensive overview of DNNs in RE from two points of view: supervised RE, which attempts to improve the standard RE systems, and distant supervision RE, which adopts DNNs to design the sentence encoder and the de-noise method. We further 3)cover some novel methods and describe some recent trends and discuss possible future research directions for this task.
Knowledge graphs (KGs) of real-world facts about entities and their relationships are useful resources for a variety of natural language processing tasks. However, because knowledge graphs are typically incomplete, it is useful to perform knowledge graph completion or link prediction, i.e. predict whether a relationship not in the knowledge graph is likely to be true. This paper serves as a comprehensive survey of embedding models of entities and relationships for knowledge graph completion, summarizing up-to-date experimental results on standard benchmark datasets and pointing out potential future research directions.
Entity alignment seeks to find entities in different knowledge graphs (KGs) that refer to the same real-world object. Recent advancement in KG embedding impels the advent of embedding-based entity alignment, which encodes entities in a continuous embedding space and measures entity similarities based on the learned embeddings. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive experimental study of this emerging field. We survey 23 recent embedding-based entity alignment approaches and categorize them based on their techniques and characteristics. We also propose a new KG sampling algorithm, with which we generate a set of dedicated benchmark datasets with various heterogeneity and distributions for a realistic evaluation. We develop an open-source library including 12 representative embedding-based entity alignment approaches, and extensively evaluate these approaches, to understand their strengths and limitations. Additionally, for several directions that have not been explored in current approaches, we perform exploratory experiments and report our preliminary findings for future studies. The benchmark datasets, open-source library and experimental results are all accessible online and will be duly maintained.
Path-based relational reasoning over knowledge graphs has become increasingly popular due to a variety of downstream applications such as question answering in dialogue systems, fact prediction, and recommender systems. In recent years, reinforcement learning (RL) has provided solutions that are more interpretable and explainable than other deep learning models. However, these solutions still face several challenges, including large action space for the RL agent and accurate representation of entity neighborhood structure. We address these problems by introducing a type-enhanced RL agent that uses the local neighborhood information for efficient path-based reasoning over knowledge graphs. Our solution uses graph neural network (GNN) for encoding the neighborhood information and utilizes entity types to prune the action space. Experiments on real-world dataset show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art RL methods and discovers more novel paths during the training procedure.
In order to facilitate the accesses of general users to knowledge graphs, an increasing effort is being exerted to construct graph-structured queries of given natural language questions. At the core of the construction is to deduce the structure of the target query and determine the vertices/edges which constitute the query. Existing query construction methods rely on question understanding and conventional graph-based algorithms which lead to inefficient and degraded performances facing complex natural language questions over knowledge graphs with large scales. In this paper, we focus on this problem and propose a novel framework standing on recent knowledge graph embedding techniques. Our framework first encodes the underlying knowledge graph into a low-dimensional embedding space by leveraging generalized local knowledge graphs. Given a natural language question, the learned embedding representations of the knowledge graph are utilized to compute the query structure and assemble vertices/edges into the target query. Extensive experiments were conducted on the benchmark dataset, and the results demonstrate that our framework outperforms state-of-the-art baseline models regarding effectiveness and efficiency.
Graph neural networks (GNNs) are a popular class of machine learning models whose major advantage is their ability to incorporate a sparse and discrete dependency structure between data points. Unfortunately, GNNs can only be used when such a graph-structure is available. In practice, however, real-world graphs are often noisy and incomplete or might not be available at all. With this work, we propose to jointly learn the graph structure and the parameters of graph convolutional networks (GCNs) by approximately solving a bilevel program that learns a discrete probability distribution on the edges of the graph. This allows one to apply GCNs not only in scenarios where the given graph is incomplete or corrupted but also in those where a graph is not available. We conduct a series of experiments that analyze the behavior of the proposed method and demonstrate that it outperforms related methods by a significant margin.
Incorporating knowledge graph (KG) into recommender system is promising in improving the recommendation accuracy and explainability. However, existing methods largely assume that a KG is complete and simply transfer the "knowledge" in KG at the shallow level of entity raw data or embeddings. This may lead to suboptimal performance, since a practical KG can hardly be complete, and it is common that a KG has missing facts, relations, and entities. Thus, we argue that it is crucial to consider the incomplete nature of KG when incorporating it into recommender system. In this paper, we jointly learn the model of recommendation and knowledge graph completion. Distinct from previous KG-based recommendation methods, we transfer the relation information in KG, so as to understand the reasons that a user likes an item. As an example, if a user has watched several movies directed by (relation) the same person (entity), we can infer that the director relation plays a critical role when the user makes the decision, thus help to understand the user's preference at a finer granularity. Technically, we contribute a new translation-based recommendation model, which specially accounts for various preferences in translating a user to an item, and then jointly train it with a KG completion model by combining several transfer schemes. Extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art KG-based recommendation methods. Further analysis verifies the positive effect of joint training on both tasks of recommendation and KG completion, and the advantage of our model in understanding user preference. We publish our project at https://github.com/TaoMiner/joint-kg-recommender.
Visual Question answering is a challenging problem requiring a combination of concepts from Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing. Most existing approaches use a two streams strategy, computing image and question features that are consequently merged using a variety of techniques. Nonetheless, very few rely on higher level image representations, which allow to capture semantic and spatial relationships. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based approach for Visual Question Answering. Our method combines a graph learner module, which learns a question specific graph representation of the input image, with the recent concept of graph convolutions, aiming to learn image representations that capture question specific interactions. We test our approach on the VQA v2 dataset using a simple baseline architecture enhanced by the proposed graph learner module. We obtain state of the art results with 66.18% accuracy and demonstrate the interpretability of the proposed method.
The web contains countless semi-structured websites, which can be a rich source of information for populating knowledge bases. Existing methods for extracting relations from the DOM trees of semi-structured webpages can achieve high precision and recall only when manual annotations for each website are available. Although there have been efforts to learn extractors from automatically-generated labels, these methods are not sufficiently robust to succeed in settings with complex schemas and information-rich websites. In this paper we present a new method for automatic extraction from semi-structured websites based on distant supervision. We automatically generate training labels by aligning an existing knowledge base with a web page and leveraging the unique structural characteristics of semi-structured websites. We then train a classifier based on the potentially noisy and incomplete labels to predict new relation instances. Our method can compete with annotation-based techniques in the literature in terms of extraction quality. A large-scale experiment on over 400,000 pages from dozens of multi-lingual long-tail websites harvested 1.25 million facts at a precision of 90%.