A great challenge to steganography has arisen with the wide application of steganalysis methods based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). To this end, embedding cost learning frameworks based on generative adversarial networks (GANs) have been proposed and achieved success for spatial steganography. However, the application of GAN to JPEG steganography is still in the prototype stage; its anti-detectability and training efficiency should be improved. In conventional steganography, research has shown that the side-information calculated from the precover can be used to enhance security. However, it is hard to calculate the side-information without the spatial domain image. In this work, an embedding cost learning framework for JPEG Steganography via a Generative Adversarial Network (JS-GAN) has been proposed, the learned embedding cost can be further adjusted asymmetrically according to the estimated side-information. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method can automatically learn a content-adaptive embedding cost function, and use the estimated side-information properly can effectively improve the security performance. For example, under the attack of a classic steganalyzer GFR with quality factor 75 and 0.4 bpnzAC, the proposed JS-GAN can increase the detection error 2.58% over J-UNIWARD, and the estimated side-information aided version JS-GAN(ESI) can further increase the security performance by 11.25% over JS-GAN.
Image segmentation algorithms often depend on appearance models that characterize the distribution of pixel values in different image regions. We describe a new approach for estimating appearance models directly from an image, without explicit consideration of the pixels that make up each region. Our approach is based on novel algebraic expressions that relate local image statistics to the appearance of spatially coherent regions. We describe two algorithms that can use the aforementioned algebraic expressions to estimate appearance models directly from an image. The first algorithm solves a system of linear and quadratic equations using a least squares formulation. The second algorithm is a spectral method based on an eigenvector computation. We present experimental results that demonstrate the proposed methods work well in practice and lead to effective image segmentation algorithms.
Contrastive learning has become a key component of self-supervised learning approaches for computer vision. By learning to embed two augmented versions of the same image close to each other and to push the embeddings of different images apart, one can train highly transferable visual representations. As revealed by recent studies, heavy data augmentation and large sets of negatives are both crucial in learning such representations. At the same time, data mixing strategies either at the image or the feature level improve both supervised and semi-supervised learning by synthesizing novel examples, forcing networks to learn more robust features. In this paper, we argue that an important aspect of contrastive learning, i.e., the effect of hard negatives, has so far been neglected. To get more meaningful negative samples, current top contrastive self-supervised learning approaches either substantially increase the batch sizes, or keep very large memory banks; increasing the memory size, however, leads to diminishing returns in terms of performance. We therefore start by delving deeper into a top-performing framework and show evidence that harder negatives are needed to facilitate better and faster learning. Based on these observations, and motivated by the success of data mixing, we propose hard negative mixing strategies at the feature level, that can be computed on-the-fly with a minimal computational overhead. We exhaustively ablate our approach on linear classification, object detection and instance segmentation and show that employing our hard negative mixing procedure improves the quality of visual representations learned by a state-of-the-art self-supervised learning method.
Recently, numerous handcrafted and searched networks have been applied for semantic segmentation. However, previous works intend to handle inputs with various scales in pre-defined static architectures, such as FCN, U-Net, and DeepLab series. This paper studies a conceptually new method to alleviate the scale variance in semantic representation, named dynamic routing. The proposed framework generates data-dependent routes, adapting to the scale distribution of each image. To this end, a differentiable gating function, called soft conditional gate, is proposed to select scale transform paths on the fly. In addition, the computational cost can be further reduced in an end-to-end manner by giving budget constraints to the gating function. We further relax the network level routing space to support multi-path propagations and skip-connections in each forward, bringing substantial network capacity. To demonstrate the superiority of the dynamic property, we compare with several static architectures, which can be modeled as special cases in the routing space. Extensive experiments are conducted on Cityscapes and PASCAL VOC 2012 to illustrate the effectiveness of the dynamic framework. Code is available at https://github.com/yanwei-li/DynamicRouting.
Deep neural networks have achieved remarkable success in computer vision tasks. Existing neural networks mainly operate in the spatial domain with fixed input sizes. For practical applications, images are usually large and have to be downsampled to the predetermined input size of neural networks. Even though the downsampling operations reduce computation and the required communication bandwidth, it removes both redundant and salient information obliviously, which results in accuracy degradation. Inspired by digital signal processing theories, we analyze the spectral bias from the frequency perspective and propose a learning-based frequency selection method to identify the trivial frequency components which can be removed without accuracy loss. The proposed method of learning in the frequency domain leverages identical structures of the well-known neural networks, such as ResNet-50, MobileNetV2, and Mask R-CNN, while accepting the frequency-domain information as the input. Experiment results show that learning in the frequency domain with static channel selection can achieve higher accuracy than the conventional spatial downsampling approach and meanwhile further reduce the input data size. Specifically for ImageNet classification with the same input size, the proposed method achieves 1.41% and 0.66% top-1 accuracy improvements on ResNet-50 and MobileNetV2, respectively. Even with half input size, the proposed method still improves the top-1 accuracy on ResNet-50 by 1%. In addition, we observe a 0.8% average precision improvement on Mask R-CNN for instance segmentation on the COCO dataset.
Learning compact binary codes for image retrieval problem using deep neural networks has attracted increasing attention recently. However, training deep hashing networks is challenging due to the binary constraints on the hash codes, the similarity preserving property, and the requirement for a vast amount of labelled images. To the best of our knowledge, none of the existing methods has tackled all of these challenges completely in a unified framework. In this work, we propose a novel end-to-end deep hashing approach, which is trained to produce binary codes directly from image pixels without the need of manual annotation. In particular, we propose a novel pairwise binary constrained loss function, which simultaneously encodes the distances between pairs of hash codes, and the binary quantization error. In order to train the network with the proposed loss function, we also propose an efficient parameter learning algorithm. In addition, to provide similar/dissimilar training images to train the network, we exploit 3D models reconstructed from unlabelled images for automatic generation of enormous similar/dissimilar pairs. Extensive experiments on three image retrieval benchmark datasets demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art hashing methods on the image retrieval problem.
Data augmentation has been widely used for training deep learning systems for medical image segmentation and plays an important role in obtaining robust and transformation-invariant predictions. However, it has seldom been used at test time for segmentation and not been formulated in a consistent mathematical framework. In this paper, we first propose a theoretical formulation of test-time augmentation for deep learning in image recognition, where the prediction is obtained through estimating its expectation by Monte Carlo simulation with prior distributions of parameters in an image acquisition model that involves image transformations and noise. We then propose a novel uncertainty estimation method based on the formulated test-time augmentation. Experiments with segmentation of fetal brains and brain tumors from 2D and 3D Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) showed that 1) our test-time augmentation outperforms a single-prediction baseline and dropout-based multiple predictions, and 2) it provides a better uncertainty estimation than calculating the model-based uncertainty alone and helps to reduce overconfident incorrect predictions.
Estimating the head pose of a person is a crucial problem that has a large amount of applications such as aiding in gaze estimation, modeling attention, fitting 3D models to video and performing face alignment. Traditionally head pose is computed by estimating some keypoints from the target face and solving the 2D to 3D correspondence problem with a mean human head model. We argue that this is a fragile method because it relies entirely on landmark detection performance, the extraneous head model and an ad-hoc fitting step. We present an elegant and robust way to determine pose by training a multi-loss convolutional neural network on 300W-LP, a large synthetically expanded dataset, to predict intrinsic Euler angles (yaw, pitch and roll) directly from image intensities through joint binned pose classification and regression. We present empirical tests on common in-the-wild pose benchmark datasets which show state-of-the-art results. Additionally we test our method on a dataset usually used for pose estimation using depth and start to close the gap with state-of-the-art depth pose methods. We open-source our training and testing code as well as release our pre-trained models.
This paper proposes a generative ScatterNet hybrid deep learning (G-SHDL) network for semantic image segmentation. The proposed generative architecture is able to train rapidly from relatively small labeled datasets using the introduced structural priors. In addition, the number of filters in each layer of the architecture is optimized resulting in a computationally efficient architecture. The G-SHDL network produces state-of-the-art classification performance against unsupervised and semi-supervised learning on two image datasets. Advantages of the G-SHDL network over supervised methods are demonstrated with experiments performed on training datasets of reduced size.
Image segmentation is still an open problem especially when intensities of the interested objects are overlapped due to the presence of intensity inhomogeneity (also known as bias field). To segment images with intensity inhomogeneities, a bias correction embedded level set model is proposed where Inhomogeneities are Estimated by Orthogonal Primary Functions (IEOPF). In the proposed model, the smoothly varying bias is estimated by a linear combination of a given set of orthogonal primary functions. An inhomogeneous intensity clustering energy is then defined and membership functions of the clusters described by the level set function are introduced to rewrite the energy as a data term of the proposed model. Similar to popular level set methods, a regularization term and an arc length term are also included to regularize and smooth the level set function, respectively. The proposed model is then extended to multichannel and multiphase patterns to segment colourful images and images with multiple objects, respectively. It has been extensively tested on both synthetic and real images that are widely used in the literature and public BrainWeb and IBSR datasets. Experimental results and comparison with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate that advantages of the proposed model in terms of bias correction and segmentation accuracy.
From only positive (P) and unlabeled (U) data, a binary classifier could be trained with PU learning, in which the state of the art is unbiased PU learning. However, if its model is very flexible, empirical risks on training data will go negative, and we will suffer from serious overfitting. In this paper, we propose a non-negative risk estimator for PU learning: when getting minimized, it is more robust against overfitting, and thus we are able to use very flexible models (such as deep neural networks) given limited P data. Moreover, we analyze the bias, consistency, and mean-squared-error reduction of the proposed risk estimator, and bound the estimation error of the resulting empirical risk minimizer. Experiments demonstrate that our risk estimator fixes the overfitting problem of its unbiased counterparts.