Humans express their opinions and emotions through multiple modalities which mainly consist of textual, acoustic and visual modalities. Prior works on multimodal sentiment analysis mostly apply Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) to model aligned multimodal sequences. However, it is unpractical to align multimodal sequences due to different sample rates for different modalities. Moreover, RNN is prone to the issues of gradient vanishing or exploding and it has limited capacity of learning long-range dependency which is the major obstacle to model unaligned multimodal sequences. In this paper, we introduce Graph Capsule Aggregation (GraphCAGE) to model unaligned multimodal sequences with graph-based neural model and Capsule Network. By converting sequence data into graph, the previously mentioned problems of RNN are avoided. In addition, the aggregation capability of Capsule Network and the graph-based structure enable our model to be interpretable and better solve the problem of long-range dependency. Experimental results suggest that GraphCAGE achieves state-of-the-art performance on two benchmark datasets with representations refined by Capsule Network and interpretation provided.
The ad-hoc retrieval task is to rank related documents given a query and a document collection. A series of deep learning based approaches have been proposed to solve such problem and gained lots of attention. However, we argue that they are inherently based on local word sequences, ignoring the subtle long-distance document-level word relationships. To solve the problem, we explicitly model the document-level word relationship through the graph structure, capturing the subtle information via graph neural networks. In addition, due to the complexity and scale of the document collections, it is considerable to explore the different grain-sized hierarchical matching signals at a more general level. Therefore, we propose a Graph-based Hierarchical Relevance Matching model (GHRM) for ad-hoc retrieval, by which we can capture the subtle and general hierarchical matching signals simultaneously. We validate the effects of GHRM over two representative ad-hoc retrieval benchmarks, the comprehensive experiments and results demonstrate its superiority over state-of-the-art methods.
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) draw their strength from explicitly modeling the topological information of structured data. However, existing GNNs suffer from limited capability in capturing the hierarchical graph representation which plays an important role in graph classification. In this paper, we innovatively propose hierarchical graph capsule network (HGCN) that can jointly learn node embeddings and extract graph hierarchies. Specifically, disentangled graph capsules are established by identifying heterogeneous factors underlying each node, such that their instantiation parameters represent different properties of the same entity. To learn the hierarchical representation, HGCN characterizes the part-whole relationship between lower-level capsules (part) and higher-level capsules (whole) by explicitly considering the structure information among the parts. Experimental studies demonstrate the effectiveness of HGCN and the contribution of each component.
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have been shown to be effective models for different predictive tasks on graph-structured data. Recent work on their expressive power has focused on isomorphism tasks and countable feature spaces. We extend this theoretical framework to include continuous features - which occur regularly in real-world input domains and within the hidden layers of GNNs - and we demonstrate the requirement for multiple aggregation functions in this setting. Accordingly, we propose Principal Neighbourhood Aggregation (PNA), a novel architecture combining multiple aggregators with degree-scalers (which generalize the sum aggregator). Finally, we compare the capacity of different models to capture and exploit the graph structure via a benchmark containing multiple tasks taken from classical graph theory, which demonstrates the capacity of our model.
Video captioning is a challenging task that requires a deep understanding of visual scenes. State-of-the-art methods generate captions using either scene-level or object-level information but without explicitly modeling object interactions. Thus, they often fail to make visually grounded predictions, and are sensitive to spurious correlations. In this paper, we propose a novel spatio-temporal graph model for video captioning that exploits object interactions in space and time. Our model builds interpretable links and is able to provide explicit visual grounding. To avoid unstable performance caused by the variable number of objects, we further propose an object-aware knowledge distillation mechanism, in which local object information is used to regularize global scene features. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach through extensive experiments on two benchmarks, showing our approach yields competitive performance with interpretable predictions.
Knowledge graph completion aims to predict missing relations between entities in a knowledge graph. While many different methods have been proposed, there is a lack of a unifying framework that would lead to state-of-the-art results. Here we develop PathCon, a knowledge graph completion method that harnesses four novel insights to outperform existing methods. PathCon predicts relations between a pair of entities by: (1) Considering the Relational Context of each entity by capturing the relation types adjacent to the entity and modeled through a novel edge-based message passing scheme; (2) Considering the Relational Paths capturing all paths between the two entities; And, (3) adaptively integrating the Relational Context and Relational Path through a learnable attention mechanism. Importantly, (4) in contrast to conventional node-based representations, PathCon represents context and path only using the relation types, which makes it applicable in an inductive setting. Experimental results on knowledge graph benchmarks as well as our newly proposed dataset show that PathCon outperforms state-of-the-art knowledge graph completion methods by a large margin. Finally, PathCon is able to provide interpretable explanations by identifying relations that provide the context and paths that are important for a given predicted relation.
Learning graph-structured data with graph neural networks (GNNs) has been recently emerging as an important field because of its wide applicability in bioinformatics, chemoinformatics, social network analysis and data mining. Recent GNN algorithms are based on neural message passing, which enables GNNs to integrate local structures and node features recursively. However, past GNN algorithms based on 1-hop neighborhood neural message passing are exposed to a risk of loss of information on local structures and relationships. In this paper, we propose Neighborhood Edge AggregatoR (NEAR), a novel framework that aggregates relations between the nodes in the neighborhood via edges. NEAR, which can be orthogonally combined with previous GNN algorithms, gives integrated information that describes which nodes in the neighborhood are connected. Therefore, GNNs combined with NEAR reflect each node's local structure beyond the nodes themselves. Experimental results on multiple graph classification tasks show that our algorithm achieves state-of-the-art results.
Inspired by the fact that different modalities in videos carry complementary information, we propose a Multimodal Semantic Attention Network(MSAN), which is a new encoder-decoder framework incorporating multimodal semantic attributes for video captioning. In the encoding phase, we detect and generate multimodal semantic attributes by formulating it as a multi-label classification problem. Moreover, we add auxiliary classification loss to our model that can obtain more effective visual features and high-level multimodal semantic attribute distributions for sufficient video encoding. In the decoding phase, we extend each weight matrix of the conventional LSTM to an ensemble of attribute-dependent weight matrices, and employ attention mechanism to pay attention to different attributes at each time of the captioning process. We evaluate algorithm on two popular public benchmarks: MSVD and MSR-VTT, achieving competitive results with current state-of-the-art across six evaluation metrics.
In order to answer semantically-complicated questions about an image, a Visual Question Answering (VQA) model needs to fully understand the visual scene in the image, especially the interactive dynamics between different objects. We propose a Relation-aware Graph Attention Network (ReGAT), which encodes each image into a graph and models multi-type inter-object relations via a graph attention mechanism, to learn question-adaptive relation representations. Two types of visual object relations are explored: (i) Explicit Relations that represent geometric positions and semantic interactions between objects; and (ii) Implicit Relations that capture the hidden dynamics between image regions. Experiments demonstrate that ReGAT outperforms prior state-of-the-art approaches on both VQA 2.0 and VQA-CP v2 datasets. We further show that ReGAT is compatible to existing VQA architectures, and can be used as a generic relation encoder to boost the model performance for VQA.
Recent progress has been made in using attention based encoder-decoder framework for image and video captioning. Most existing decoders apply the attention mechanism to every generated word including both visual words (e.g., "gun" and "shooting") and non-visual words (e.g. "the", "a"). However, these non-visual words can be easily predicted using natural language model without considering visual signals or attention. Imposing attention mechanism on non-visual words could mislead and decrease the overall performance of visual captioning. Furthermore, the hierarchy of LSTMs enables more complex representation of visual data, capturing information at different scales. To address these issues, we propose a hierarchical LSTM with adaptive attention (hLSTMat) approach for image and video captioning. Specifically, the proposed framework utilizes the spatial or temporal attention for selecting specific regions or frames to predict the related words, while the adaptive attention is for deciding whether to depend on the visual information or the language context information. Also, a hierarchical LSTMs is designed to simultaneously consider both low-level visual information and high-level language context information to support the caption generation. We initially design our hLSTMat for video captioning task. Then, we further refine it and apply it to image captioning task. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework, we test our method on both video and image captioning tasks. Experimental results show that our approach achieves the state-of-the-art performance for most of the evaluation metrics on both tasks. The effect of important components is also well exploited in the ablation study.
This paper describes a novel hierarchical attention network for reading comprehension style question answering, which aims to answer questions for a given narrative paragraph. In the proposed method, attention and fusion are conducted horizontally and vertically across layers at different levels of granularity between question and paragraph. Specifically, it first encode the question and paragraph with fine-grained language embeddings, to better capture the respective representations at semantic level. Then it proposes a multi-granularity fusion approach to fully fuse information from both global and attended representations. Finally, it introduces a hierarchical attention network to focuses on the answer span progressively with multi-level softalignment. Extensive experiments on the large-scale SQuAD and TriviaQA datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. At the time of writing the paper (Jan. 12th 2018), our model achieves the first position on the SQuAD leaderboard for both single and ensemble models. We also achieves state-of-the-art results on TriviaQA, AddSent and AddOne-Sent datasets.