This paper examines the interdisciplinary research question of how to integrate Computational Argumentation, as studied in AI, with Cognition, as can be found in Cognitive Science, Linguistics, and Philosophy. It stems from the work of the 1st Workshop on Computational Argumentation and Cognition (COGNITAR), which was organized as part of the 24th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI), and took place virtually on September 8th, 2020. The paper begins with a brief presentation of the scientific motivation for the integration of Computational Argumentation and Cognition, arguing that within the context of Human-Centric AI the use of theory and methods from Computational Argumentation for the study of Cognition can be a promising avenue to pursue. A short summary of each of the workshop presentations is given showing the wide spectrum of problems where the synthesis of the theory and methods of Computational Argumentation with other approaches that study Cognition can be applied. The paper presents the main problems and challenges in the area that would need to be addressed, both at the scientific level but also at the epistemological level, particularly in relation to the synthesis of ideas and approaches from the various disciplines involved.

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Cognition:Cognition:International Journal of Cognitive Science Explanation:认知:国际认知科学杂志。 Publisher:Elsevier。 SIT: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/cognition/

In recent years, the data science community has pursued excellence and made significant research efforts to develop advanced analytics, focusing on solving technical problems at the expense of organizational and socio-technical challenges. According to previous surveys on the state of data science project management, there is a significant gap between technical and organizational processes. In this article we present new empirical data from a survey to 237 data science professionals on the use of project management methodologies for data science. We provide additional profiling of the survey respondents' roles and their priorities when executing data science projects. Based on this survey study, the main findings are: (1) Agile data science lifecycle is the most widely used framework, but only 25% of the survey participants state to follow a data science project methodology. (2) The most important success factors are precisely describing stakeholders' needs, communicating the results to end-users, and team collaboration and coordination. (3) Professionals who adhere to a project methodology place greater emphasis on the project's potential risks and pitfalls, version control, the deployment pipeline to production, and data security and privacy.

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ACS is an annual meeting for research on the initial goals of artificial intelligence and cognitive science, which aimed to explain the mind in computational terms and to reproduce the entire range of human cognitive abilities in computational artifacts. Many researchers remain committed to this original vision, and Advances in Cognitive Systems provides a place to present recent results and pose new challenges for the field. The meetings bring together researchers with interests in human-level intelligence, complex cognition, integrated intelligent systems, cognitive architectures, and related topics.

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Data and Science has stood out in the generation of results, whether in the projects of the scientific domain or business domain. CERN Project, Scientific Institutes, companies like Walmart, Google, Apple, among others, need data to present their results and make predictions in the competitive data world. Data and Science are words that together culminated in a globally recognized term called Data Science. Data Science is in its initial phase, possibly being part of formal sciences and also being presented as part of applied sciences, capable of generating value and supporting decision making. Data Science considers science and, consequently, the scientific method to promote decision making through data intelligence. In many cases, the application of the method (or part of it) is considered in Data Science projects in scientific domain (social sciences, bioinformatics, geospatial projects) or business domain (finance, logistic, retail), among others. In this sense, this article addresses the perspectives of Data Science as a multidisciplinary area, considering science and the scientific method, and its formal structure which integrate Statistics, Computer Science, and Business Science, also taking into account Artificial Intelligence, emphasizing Machine Learning, among others. The article also deals with the perspective of applied Data Science, since Data Science is used for generating value through scientific and business projects. Data Science persona is also discussed in the article, concerning the education of Data Science professionals and its corresponding profiles, since its projection changes the field of data in the world.

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Cognition plays a fundamental role in most software engineering activities. This article provides a taxonomy of cognitive concepts and a survey of the literature since the beginning of the Software Engineering discipline. The taxonomy comprises the top-level concepts of perception, attention, memory, cognitive load, reasoning, cognitive biases, knowledge, social cognition, cognitive control, and errors, and procedures to assess them both qualitatively and quantitatively. The taxonomy provides a useful tool to filter existing studies, classify new studies, and support researchers in getting familiar with a (sub) area. In the literature survey, we systematically collected and analysed 311 scientific papers spanning five decades and classified them using the cognitive concepts from the taxonomy. Our analysis shows that the most developed areas of research correspond to the four life-cycle stages, software requirements, design, construction, and maintenance. Most research is quantitative and focuses on knowledge, cognitive load, memory, and reasoning. Overall, the state of the art appears fragmented when viewed from the perspective of cognition. There is a lack of use of cognitive concepts that would represent a coherent picture of the cognitive processes active in specific tasks. Accordingly, we discuss the research gap in each cognitive concept and provide recommendations for future research.

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Enquiries concerning the underlying mechanisms and the emergent properties of a biological brain have a long history of theoretical postulates and experimental findings. Today, the scientific community tends to converge to a single interpretation of the brain's cognitive underpinnings -- that it is a Bayesian inference machine. This contemporary view has naturally been a strong driving force in recent developments around computational and cognitive neurosciences. Of particular interest is the brain's ability to process the passage of time -- one of the fundamental dimensions of our experience. How can we explain empirical data on human time perception using the Bayesian brain hypothesis? Can we replicate human estimation biases using Bayesian models? What insights can the agent-based machine learning models provide for the study of this subject? In this chapter, we review some of the recent advancements in the field of time perception and discuss the role of Bayesian processing in the construction of temporal models.

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A fundamental goal of scientific research is to learn about causal relationships. However, despite its critical role in the life and social sciences, causality has not had the same importance in Natural Language Processing (NLP), which has traditionally placed more emphasis on predictive tasks. This distinction is beginning to fade, with an emerging area of interdisciplinary research at the convergence of causal inference and language processing. Still, research on causality in NLP remains scattered across domains without unified definitions, benchmark datasets and clear articulations of the remaining challenges. In this survey, we consolidate research across academic areas and situate it in the broader NLP landscape. We introduce the statistical challenge of estimating causal effects, encompassing settings where text is used as an outcome, treatment, or as a means to address confounding. In addition, we explore potential uses of causal inference to improve the performance, robustness, fairness, and interpretability of NLP models. We thus provide a unified overview of causal inference for the computational linguistics community.

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Generalization to out-of-distribution (OOD) data is a capability natural to humans yet challenging for machines to reproduce. This is because most learning algorithms strongly rely on the i.i.d.~assumption on source/target data, which is often violated in practice due to domain shift. Domain generalization (DG) aims to achieve OOD generalization by using only source data for model learning. Since first introduced in 2011, research in DG has made great progresses. In particular, intensive research in this topic has led to a broad spectrum of methodologies, e.g., those based on domain alignment, meta-learning, data augmentation, or ensemble learning, just to name a few; and has covered various vision applications such as object recognition, segmentation, action recognition, and person re-identification. In this paper, for the first time a comprehensive literature review is provided to summarize the developments in DG for computer vision over the past decade. Specifically, we first cover the background by formally defining DG and relating it to other research fields like domain adaptation and transfer learning. Second, we conduct a thorough review into existing methods and present a categorization based on their methodologies and motivations. Finally, we conclude this survey with insights and discussions on future research directions.

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Meta-learning, or learning to learn, has gained renewed interest in recent years within the artificial intelligence community. However, meta-learning is incredibly prevalent within nature, has deep roots in cognitive science and psychology, and is currently studied in various forms within neuroscience. The aim of this review is to recast previous lines of research in the study of biological intelligence within the lens of meta-learning, placing these works into a common framework. More recent points of interaction between AI and neuroscience will be discussed, as well as interesting new directions that arise under this perspective.

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The era of big data provides researchers with convenient access to copious data. However, people often have little knowledge about it. The increasing prevalence of big data is challenging the traditional methods of learning causality because they are developed for the cases with limited amount of data and solid prior causal knowledge. This survey aims to close the gap between big data and learning causality with a comprehensive and structured review of traditional and frontier methods and a discussion about some open problems of learning causality. We begin with preliminaries of learning causality. Then we categorize and revisit methods of learning causality for the typical problems and data types. After that, we discuss the connections between learning causality and machine learning. At the end, some open problems are presented to show the great potential of learning causality with data.

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Natural Language Inference (NLI) is fundamental to many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications including semantic search and question answering. The NLI problem has gained significant attention thanks to the release of large scale, challenging datasets. Present approaches to the problem largely focus on learning-based methods that use only textual information in order to classify whether a given premise entails, contradicts, or is neutral with respect to a given hypothesis. Surprisingly, the use of methods based on structured knowledge -- a central topic in artificial intelligence -- has not received much attention vis-a-vis the NLI problem. While there are many open knowledge bases that contain various types of reasoning information, their use for NLI has not been well explored. To address this, we present a combination of techniques that harness knowledge graphs to improve performance on the NLI problem in the science questions domain. We present the results of applying our techniques on text, graph, and text-to-graph based models, and discuss implications for the use of external knowledge in solving the NLI problem. Our model achieves the new state-of-the-art performance on the NLI problem over the SciTail science questions dataset.

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