Federated Learning (FL) has emerged as a promising technique for edge devices to collaboratively learn a shared prediction model, while keeping their training data on the device, thereby decoupling the ability to do machine learning from the need to store the data in the cloud. However, FL is difficult to implement and deploy in practice, considering the heterogeneity in mobile devices, e.g., different programming languages, frameworks, and hardware accelerators. Although there are a few frameworks available to simulate FL algorithms (e.g., TensorFlow Federated), they do not support implementing FL workloads on mobile devices. Furthermore, these frameworks are designed to simulate FL in a server environment and hence do not allow experimentation in distributed mobile settings for a large number of clients. In this paper, we present Flower (https://flower.dev/), a FL framework which is both agnostic towards heterogeneous client environments and also scales to a large number of clients, including mobile and embedded devices. Flower's abstractions let developers port existing mobile workloads with little overhead, regardless of the programming language or ML framework used, while also allowing researchers flexibility to experiment with novel approaches to advance the state-of-the-art. We describe the design goals and implementation considerations of Flower and show our experiences in evaluating the performance of FL across clients with heterogeneous computational and communication capabilities.

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联邦学习(Federated Learning)是一种新兴的人工智能基础技术,在 2016 年由谷歌最先提出,原本用于解决安卓手机终端用户在本地更新模型的问题,其设计目标是在保障大数据交换时的信息安全、保护终端数据和个人数据隐私、保证合法合规的前提下,在多参与方或多计算结点之间开展高效率的机器学习。其中,联邦学习可使用的机器学习算法不局限于神经网络,还包括随机森林等重要算法。联邦学习有望成为下一代人工智能协同算法和协作网络的基础。

Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) have shown promising results in many areas and are driven by the increasing amount of available data. However, this data is often distributed across different institutions and cannot be shared due to privacy concerns. Privacy-preserving methods, such as Federated Learning (FL), allow for training ML models without sharing sensitive data, but their implementation is time-consuming and requires advanced programming skills. Here, we present the FeatureCloud AI Store for FL as an all-in-one platform for biomedical research and other applications. It removes large parts of this complexity for developers and end-users by providing an extensible AI Store with a collection of ready-to-use apps. We show that the federated apps produce similar results to centralized ML, scale well for a typical number of collaborators and can be combined with Secure Multiparty Computation (SMPC), thereby making FL algorithms safely and easily applicable in biomedical and clinical environments.

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With the rapid development of computing technology, wearable devices such as smart phones and wristbands make it easy to get access to people's health information including activities, sleep, sports, etc. Smart healthcare achieves great success by training machine learning models on a large quantity of user data. However, there are two critical challenges. Firstly, user data often exists in the form of isolated islands, making it difficult to perform aggregation without compromising privacy security. Secondly, the models trained on the cloud fail on personalization. In this paper, we propose FedHealth, the first federated transfer learning framework for wearable healthcare to tackle these challenges. FedHealth performs data aggregation through federated learning, and then builds personalized models by transfer learning. It is able to achieve accurate and personalized healthcare without compromising privacy and security. Experiments demonstrate that FedHealth produces higher accuracy (5.3% improvement) for wearable activity recognition when compared to traditional methods. FedHealth is general and extensible and has the potential to be used in many healthcare applications.

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In recent years, data and computing resources are typically distributed in the devices of end users, various regions or organizations. Because of laws or regulations, the distributed data and computing resources cannot be directly shared among different regions or organizations for machine learning tasks. Federated learning emerges as an efficient approach to exploit distributed data and computing resources, so as to collaboratively train machine learning models, while obeying the laws and regulations and ensuring data security and data privacy. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of existing works for federated learning. We propose a functional architecture of federated learning systems and a taxonomy of related techniques. Furthermore, we present the distributed training, data communication, and security of FL systems. Finally, we analyze their limitations and propose future research directions.

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Federated Learning (FL) is an exciting new paradigm that enables training a global model from data generated locally at the client nodes, without moving client data to a centralized server. Performance of FL in a multi-access edge computing (MEC) network suffers from slow convergence due to heterogeneity and stochastic fluctuations in compute power and communication link qualities across clients. A recent work, Coded Federated Learning (CFL), proposes to mitigate stragglers and speed up training for linear regression tasks by assigning redundant computations at the MEC server. Coding redundancy in CFL is computed by exploiting statistical properties of compute and communication delays. We develop CodedFedL that addresses the difficult task of extending CFL to distributed non-linear regression and classification problems with multioutput labels. The key innovation of our work is to exploit distributed kernel embedding using random Fourier features that transforms the training task into distributed linear regression. We provide an analytical solution for load allocation, and demonstrate significant performance gains for CodedFedL through experiments over benchmark datasets using practical network parameters.

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Graph data are ubiquitous in the real world. Graph learning (GL) tries to mine and analyze graph data so that valuable information can be discovered. Existing GL methods are designed for centralized scenarios. However, in practical scenarios, graph data are usually distributed in different organizations, i.e., the curse of isolated data islands. To address this problem, we incorporate federated learning into GL and propose a general Federated Graph Learning framework FedGL, which is capable of obtaining a high-quality global graph model while protecting data privacy by discovering the global self-supervision information during the federated training. Concretely, we propose to upload the prediction results and node embeddings to the server for discovering the global pseudo label and global pseudo graph, which are distributed to each client to enrich the training labels and complement the graph structure respectively, thereby improving the quality of each local model. Moreover, the global self-supervision enables the information of each client to flow and share in a privacy-preserving manner, thus alleviating the heterogeneity and utilizing the complementarity of graph data among different clients. Finally, experimental results show that FedGL significantly outperforms baselines on four widely used graph datasets.

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Federated learning (FL) has recently emerged as a promising distributed machine learning (ML) paradigm. Practical needs of the "right to be forgotten" and countering data poisoning attacks call for efficient techniques that can remove, or unlearn, specific training data from the trained FL model. Existing unlearning techniques in the context of ML, however, are no longer in effect for FL, mainly due to the inherent distinction in the way how FL and ML learn from data. Therefore, how to enable efficient data removal from FL models remains largely under-explored. In this paper, we take the first step to fill this gap by presenting FedEraser, the first federated unlearning methodology that can eliminate the influence of a federated client's data on the global FL model while significantly reducing the time used for constructing the unlearned FL model.The basic idea of FedEraser is to trade the central server's storage for unlearned model's construction time, where FedEraser reconstructs the unlearned model by leveraging the historical parameter updates of federated clients that have been retained at the central server during the training process of FL. A novel calibration method is further developed to calibrate the retained updates, which are further used to promptly construct the unlearned model, yielding a significant speed-up to the reconstruction of the unlearned model while maintaining the model efficacy. Experiments on four realistic datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of FedEraser, with an expected speed-up of $4\times$ compared with retraining from the scratch. We envision our work as an early step in FL towards compliance with legal and ethical criteria in a fair and transparent manner.

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Large scale contextual representation models have significantly advanced NLP in recent years, understanding the semantics of text to a degree never seen before. However, they need to process large amounts of data to achieve high-quality results. Joining and accessing all these data from multiple sources can be extremely challenging due to privacy and regulatory reasons. Federated Learning can solve these limitations by training models in a distributed fashion, taking advantage of the hardware of the devices that generate the data. We show the viability of training NLP models, specifically Word2Vec, with the Federated Learning protocol. In particular, we focus on a scenario in which a small number of organizations each hold a relatively large corpus. The results show that neither the quality of the results nor the convergence time in Federated Word2Vec deteriorates as compared to centralised Word2Vec.

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Federated learning enables multiple parties to collaboratively train a machine learning model without communicating their local data. A key challenge in federated learning is to handle the heterogeneity of local data distribution across parties. Although many studies have been proposed to address this challenge, we find that they fail to achieve high performance in image datasets with deep learning models. In this paper, we propose MOON: model-contrastive federated learning. MOON is a simple and effective federated learning framework. The key idea of MOON is to utilize the similarity between model representations to correct the local training of individual parties, i.e., conducting contrastive learning in model-level. Our extensive experiments show that MOON significantly outperforms the other state-of-the-art federated learning algorithms on various image classification tasks.

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We present one-shot federated learning, where a central server learns a global model over a network of federated devices in a single round of communication. Our approach - drawing on ensemble learning and knowledge aggregation - achieves an average relative gain of 51.5% in AUC over local baselines and comes within 90.1% of the (unattainable) global ideal. We discuss these methods and identify several promising directions of future work.

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We train a recurrent neural network language model using a distributed, on-device learning framework called federated learning for the purpose of next-word prediction in a virtual keyboard for smartphones. Server-based training using stochastic gradient descent is compared with training on client devices using the Federated Averaging algorithm. The federated algorithm, which enables training on a higher-quality dataset for this use case, is shown to achieve better prediction recall. This work demonstrates the feasibility and benefit of training language models on client devices without exporting sensitive user data to servers. The federated learning environment gives users greater control over their data and simplifies the task of incorporating privacy by default with distributed training and aggregation across a population of client devices.

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The FeatureCloud AI Store for Federated Learning in Biomedicine and Beyond
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