Motivated by privacy issues caused by inference attacks on user activities in the packet sizes and timing information of Internet of Things (IoT) network traffic, we establish a rigorous event-level differential privacy (DP) model on infinite packet streams. We propose a memoryless traffic shaping mechanism satisfying a first-come-first-served queuing discipline that outputs traffic dependent on the input using a DP mechanism. We show that in special cases the proposed mechanism recovers existing shapers which standardize the output independently from the input. To find the optimal shapers for given levels of privacy and transmission efficiency, we formulate the constrained problem of minimizing the expected delay per packet and propose using the expected queue size across time as a proxy. We further show that the constrained minimization is a convex program. We demonstrate the effect of shapers on both synthetic data and packet traces from actual IoT devices. The experimental results reveal inherent privacy-overhead tradeoffs: more shaping overhead provides better privacy protection. Under the same privacy level, there naturally exists a tradeoff between dummy traffic and delay. When dealing with heavier or less bursty input traffic, all shapers become more overhead-efficient. We also show that increased traffic from a larger number of IoT devices makes guaranteeing event-level privacy easier. The DP shaper offers tunable privacy that is invariant with the change in the input traffic distribution and has an advantage in handling burstiness over traffic-independent shapers. This approach well accommodates heterogeneous network conditions and enables users to adapt to their privacy/overhead demands.

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Networking:IFIP International Conferences on Networking。 Explanation:国际网络会议。 Publisher:IFIP。 SIT: http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/networking/index.html

With the advances in 5G and IoT devices, the industries are vastly adopting artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for improving classification and prediction-based services. However, the use of AI also raises concerns regarding privacy and security that can be misused or leaked. Private AI was recently coined to address the data security issue by combining AI with encryption techniques, but existing studies have shown that model inversion attacks can be used to reverse engineer the images from model parameters. In this regard, we propose a Federated Learning and Encryption-based Private (FLEP) AI framework that provides two-tier security for data and model parameters in an IIoT environment. We proposed a three-layer encryption method for data security and provide a hypothetical method to secure the model parameters. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves better encryption quality at the expense of slightly increased execution time. We also highlight several open issues and challenges regarding the FLEP AI framework's realization.

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This document considers the counteracting requirements of privacy and accountability applied to identity management. Based on the requirements of GDPR 1 applied to identity attributes two forms of identity, with differing balances between privacy and accountability, are suggested termed "publicly-recognised identity" and "domain-specific identity". These forms of identity can be further refined using "pseudonymisation" and as described in GDPR. This leads to the different forms of identity on the spectrum of accountability vs privacy. It is recommended that the privacy and accountability requirements, and hence the appropriate form of identity, is considered in designing an identification scheme, and in the adoption of a scheme by data processing systems. Also, users should be aware of the implications of the form of identity requested by a system so that they can decide whether this is acceptable.

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We propose a general method for growing neural network with shared parameter by matching trained network to new input. By leveraging Hoeffding's inequality, we provide a theoretical base for improving performance by adding subnetwork to existing network. With the theoretical base of adding new subnetwork, we implement a matching method to apply trained subnetwork of existing network to new input. Our method has shown the ability to improve performance with higher parameter efficiency. It can also be applied to trans-task case and realize transfer learning by changing the combination of subnetworks without training on new task.

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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, have exploded in every segment present in todays business industry. They have scope in reinventing old businesses, and they are even developing new opportunities for various brands and franchisors. UAVs are used in the supply chain, maintaining surveillance and serving as mobile hotspots. Although UAVs have potential applications, they bring several societal concerns and challenges that need addressing in public safety, privacy, and cyber security. UAVs are prone to various cyber-attacks and vulnerabilities; they can also be hacked and misused by malicious entities resulting in cyber-crime. The adversaries can exploit these vulnerabilities, leading to data loss, property, and destruction of life. One can partially detect the attacks like false information dissemination, jamming, gray hole, blackhole, and GPS spoofing by monitoring the UAV behavior, but it may not resolve privacy issues. This paper presents secure communication between UAVs using blockchain technology. Our approach involves building smart contracts and making a secure and reliable UAV adhoc network. This network will be resilient to various network attacks and is secure against malicious intrusions.

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mage steganography is the process of hiding information which can be text, image, or video inside a cover image. The advantage of steganography over cryptography is that the intended secret message does not attract attention and is thus more suitable for secret communication in a highly-surveillant environment such as civil disobedience movements. Internet memes in social media and messaging apps have become a popular culture worldwide, so this folk custom is a good application scenario for image steganography. We try to explore and adopt the steganography techniques on the Internet memes in this work. We implement and improve the HiDDeN model by changing the Conv-BN-ReLU blocks convolution layer with a multiscale autoencoder network so that the neural network learns to embed message bits in higher-level feature space. Compared to methods that convolve feature filters on the row-pixel domain, our proposed MS-Hidden network learns to hide secrets in both low-level and high-level image features. As a result, the proposed model significantly reduces the bit-error rate to empirically 0% and the required network parameters are much less than the HiDDeN model.

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The rapid deployment of new Internet protocols over the last few years and the COVID-19 pandemic more recently (2020) has resulted in a change in the Internet traffic composition. Consequently, an updated microscopic view of traffic shares is needed to understand how the Internet is evolving to capture both such shorter- and longer-term events. Toward this end, we observe traffic composition at a research network in Japan and a Tier-1 ISP in the USA. We analyze the traffic traces passively captured at two inter-domain links: MAWI (Japan) and CAIDA (New York-Sao Paulo), which cover 100GB of data for MAWI traces and 4TB of data for CAIDA traces in total. We begin by studying the impact of COVID-19 on the MAWI link: We find a substantial increase in the traffic volume of OpenVPN and rsync, as well as increases in traffic volume from cloud storage and video conferencing services, which shows that clients shift to remote work during the pandemic. For traffic traces between March 2018 to December 2018, we find that the use of IPv6 is increasing quickly on the CAIDA monitor: The IPv6 traffic volume increases from 1.1% in March 2018 to 6.1% in December 2018, while the IPv6 traffic share remains stable in the MAWI dataset at around 9% of the traffic volume. Among other protocols at the application layer, 60%-70% of IPv4 traffic on the CAIDA link is HTTP(S) traffic, out of which two-thirds are encrypted; for the MAWI link, more than 90% of the traffic is Web, of which nearly 75% is encrypted. Compared to previous studies, this depicts a larger increase in encrypted Web traffic of up to a 3-to-1 ratio of HTTPS to HTTP. As such, our observations in this study further reconfirm that traffic shares change with time and can vary greatly depending on the vantage point studied despite the use of the same generalized methodology and analyses, which can also be applied to other traffic monitoring datasets.

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From learning assistance to companionship, social robots promise to enhance many aspects of daily life. However, social robots have not seen widespread adoption, in part because (1) they do not adapt their behavior to new users, and (2) they do not provide sufficient privacy protections. Centralized learning, whereby robots develop skills by gathering data on a server, contributes to these limitations by preventing online learning of new experiences and requiring storage of privacy-sensitive data. In this work, we propose a decentralized learning alternative that improves the privacy and personalization of social robots. We combine two machine learning approaches, Federated Learning and Continual Learning, to capture interaction dynamics distributed physically across robots and temporally across repeated robot encounters. We define a set of criteria that should be balanced in decentralized robot learning scenarios. We also develop a new algorithm -- Elastic Transfer -- that leverages importance-based regularization to preserve relevant parameters across robots and interactions with multiple humans. We show that decentralized learning is a viable alternative to centralized learning in a proof-of-concept Socially-Aware Navigation domain, and demonstrate how Elastic Transfer improves several of the proposed criteria.

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Industry 4.0 aims at shaking the current manufacturing landscape by leveraging the adoption of smart industrial equipment with increased connectivity, sensing, and actuation capabilities. By exploring access to real-time production information and advanced remote control features, servitization of manufacturing firms promises novel added value services for industrial operators and customers. On the other hand, industrial networks would face a transformation process in order to support the flexibility expected by the next-generation manufacturing processes and enable inter-factory cooperation. In this scenario, the 5G systems can play a key role in enabling Industry 4.0 by extending the network slicing paradigm to specifically support the requirements of industrial use cases over heterogeneous domains. We present a novel 5G-based network slicing framework which aims at accommodating the requirements of Industry 4.0. To interconnect different industrial sites up to the extreme edge, different slices of logical resources can be instantiated on-demand to provide the required end-to-end connectivity and processing features. We validate our proposed framework in three realistic use cases which enabled us highlight the envisioned benefits for industrial stakeholders.

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News recommendation aims to display news articles to users based on their personal interest. Existing news recommendation methods rely on centralized storage of user behavior data for model training, which may lead to privacy concerns and risks due to the privacy-sensitive nature of user behaviors. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for news recommendation model training based on federated learning, where the user behavior data is locally stored on user devices. Our method can leverage the useful information in the behaviors of massive number users to train accurate news recommendation models and meanwhile remove the need of centralized storage of them. More specifically, on each user device we keep a local copy of the news recommendation model, and compute gradients of the local model based on the user behaviors in this device. The local gradients from a group of randomly selected users are uploaded to server, which are further aggregated to update the global model in the server. Since the model gradients may contain some implicit private information, we apply local differential privacy (LDP) to them before uploading for better privacy protection. The updated global model is then distributed to each user device for local model update. We repeat this process for multiple rounds. Extensive experiments on a real-world dataset show the effectiveness of our method in news recommendation model training with privacy protection.

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Network Virtualization is one of the most promising technologies for future networking and considered as a critical IT resource that connects distributed, virtualized Cloud Computing services and different components such as storage, servers and application. Network Virtualization allows multiple virtual networks to coexist on same shared physical infrastructure simultaneously. One of the crucial keys in Network Virtualization is Virtual Network Embedding, which provides a method to allocate physical substrate resources to virtual network requests. In this paper, we investigate Virtual Network Embedding strategies and related issues for resource allocation of an Internet Provider(InP) to efficiently embed virtual networks that are requested by Virtual Network Operators(VNOs) who share the same infrastructure provided by the InP. In order to achieve that goal, we design a heuristic Virtual Network Embedding algorithm that simultaneously embeds virtual nodes and virtual links of each virtual network request onto physic infrastructure. Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate that our proposed scheme improves significantly the performance of Virtual Network Embedding by enhancing the long-term average revenue as well as acceptance ratio and resource utilization of virtual network requests compared to prior algorithms.

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