Ionic Coulomb blockade (ICB) is an electrostatic phenomenon recently discovered in low-capacitance ion channels/nanopores. Depending on the fixed charge that is present, ICB strongly and selectively influences the ease with which a given type of ion can permeate the pore. The phenomenon arises from the discreteness of the charge-carriers, the dielectric self-energy, an electrostatic exclusion principle, and sequential pore neutralization, and it manifests itself strongly for divalent ions (e.g.\ Ca$^{2+}$). Ionic Coulomb blockade is closely analogous to electronic Coulomb blockade in quantum dots. In addition to the non-local 1D Coulomb interaction considered in the standard Coulomb blockade approach, we now propose a correction to take account of the singular part of the attraction to the binding site (i.e.\ local site binding). We show that this correction leads to a geometry-dependent shift of one of the barrierless resonant conduction points M$_0^{CB}$. We also show that local ion-ion repulsion accounts for a splitting of Ca$^{2+}$ profiles observed earlier in Brownian dynamics simulations.

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International Joint Conference on Biometrics于2006年合并了AVBPA(基于音频和视频的个人认证)、ICBA(国际生物认证会议)和其他生物认证研讨会,已成为领先的生物认证国际会议。该会议的主题包括当前生物测定学研究和应用的所有领域。官网链接:http://www.icb2019.org/

Modeling multivariate time series has long been a subject that has attracted researchers from a diverse range of fields including economics, finance, and traffic. A basic assumption behind multivariate time series forecasting is that its variables depend on one another but, upon looking closely, it is fair to say that existing methods fail to fully exploit latent spatial dependencies between pairs of variables. In recent years, meanwhile, graph neural networks (GNNs) have shown high capability in handling relational dependencies. GNNs require well-defined graph structures for information propagation which means they cannot be applied directly for multivariate time series where the dependencies are not known in advance. In this paper, we propose a general graph neural network framework designed specifically for multivariate time series data. Our approach automatically extracts the uni-directed relations among variables through a graph learning module, into which external knowledge like variable attributes can be easily integrated. A novel mix-hop propagation layer and a dilated inception layer are further proposed to capture the spatial and temporal dependencies within the time series. The graph learning, graph convolution, and temporal convolution modules are jointly learned in an end-to-end framework. Experimental results show that our proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline methods on 3 of 4 benchmark datasets and achieves on-par performance with other approaches on two traffic datasets which provide extra structural information.

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Convolutional Neural Networks experience catastrophic forgetting when optimized on a sequence of learning problems: as they meet the objective of the current training examples, their performance on previous tasks drops drastically. In this work, we introduce a novel framework to tackle this problem with conditional computation. We equip each convolutional layer with task-specific gating modules, selecting which filters to apply on the given input. This way, we achieve two appealing properties. Firstly, the execution patterns of the gates allow to identify and protect important filters, ensuring no loss in the performance of the model for previously learned tasks. Secondly, by using a sparsity objective, we can promote the selection of a limited set of kernels, allowing to retain sufficient model capacity to digest new tasks.Existing solutions require, at test time, awareness of the task to which each example belongs to. This knowledge, however, may not be available in many practical scenarios. Therefore, we additionally introduce a task classifier that predicts the task label of each example, to deal with settings in which a task oracle is not available. We validate our proposal on four continual learning datasets. Results show that our model consistently outperforms existing methods both in the presence and the absence of a task oracle. Notably, on Split SVHN and Imagenet-50 datasets, our model yields up to 23.98% and 17.42% improvement in accuracy w.r.t. competing methods.

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This work focuses on mitigating two limitations in the joint learning of local feature detectors and descriptors. First, the ability to estimate the local shape (scale, orientation, etc.) of feature points is often neglected during dense feature extraction, while the shape-awareness is crucial to acquire stronger geometric invariance. Second, the localization accuracy of detected keypoints is not sufficient to reliably recover camera geometry, which has become the bottleneck in tasks such as 3D reconstruction. In this paper, we present ASLFeat, with three light-weight yet effective modifications to mitigate above issues. First, we resort to deformable convolutional networks to densely estimate and apply local transformation. Second, we take advantage of the inherent feature hierarchy to restore spatial resolution and low-level details for accurate keypoint localization. Finally, we use a peakiness measurement to relate feature responses and derive more indicative detection scores. The effect of each modification is thoroughly studied, and the evaluation is extensively conducted across a variety of practical scenarios. State-of-the-art results are reported that demonstrate the superiority of our methods.

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Although recent neural conversation models have shown great potential, they often generate bland and generic responses. While various approaches have been explored to diversify the output of the conversation model, the improvement often comes at the cost of decreased relevance. In this paper, we propose a method to jointly optimize diversity and relevance that essentially fuses the latent space of a sequence-to-sequence model and that of an autoencoder model by leveraging novel regularization terms. As a result, our approach induces a latent space in which the distance and direction from the predicted response vector roughly match the relevance and diversity, respectively. This property also lends itself well to an intuitive visualization of the latent space. Both automatic and human evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed approach brings significant improvement compared to strong baselines in both diversity and relevance.

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Implicit probabilistic models are models defined naturally in terms of a sampling procedure and often induces a likelihood function that cannot be expressed explicitly. We develop a simple method for estimating parameters in implicit models that does not require knowledge of the form of the likelihood function or any derived quantities, but can be shown to be equivalent to maximizing likelihood under some conditions. Our result holds in the non-asymptotic parametric setting, where both the capacity of the model and the number of data examples are finite. We also demonstrate encouraging experimental results.

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Encoder-decoder models typically only employ words that are frequently used in the training corpus to reduce the computational costs and exclude noise. However, this vocabulary set may still include words that interfere with learning in encoder-decoder models. This paper proposes a method for selecting more suitable words for learning encoders by utilizing not only frequency, but also co-occurrence information, which we capture using the HITS algorithm. We apply our proposed method to two tasks: machine translation and grammatical error correction. For Japanese-to-English translation, this method achieves a BLEU score that is 0.56 points more than that of a baseline. It also outperforms the baseline method for English grammatical error correction, with an F0.5-measure that is 1.48 points higher.

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The process of translation is ambiguous, in that there are typically many valid trans- lations for a given sentence. This gives rise to significant variation in parallel cor- pora, however, most current models of machine translation do not account for this variation, instead treating the prob- lem as a deterministic process. To this end, we present a deep generative model of machine translation which incorporates a chain of latent variables, in order to ac- count for local lexical and syntactic varia- tion in parallel corpora. We provide an in- depth analysis of the pitfalls encountered in variational inference for training deep generative models. Experiments on sev- eral different language pairs demonstrate that the model consistently improves over strong baselines.

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In this paper, we propose the Self-Attention Generative Adversarial Network (SAGAN) which allows attention-driven, long-range dependency modeling for image generation tasks. Traditional convolutional GANs generate high-resolution details as a function of only spatially local points in lower-resolution feature maps. In SAGAN, details can be generated using cues from all feature locations. Moreover, the discriminator can check that highly detailed features in distant portions of the image are consistent with each other. Furthermore, recent work has shown that generator conditioning affects GAN performance. Leveraging this insight, we apply spectral normalization to the GAN generator and find that this improves training dynamics. The proposed SAGAN achieves the state-of-the-art results, boosting the best published Inception score from 36.8 to 52.52 and reducing Frechet Inception distance from 27.62 to 18.65 on the challenging ImageNet dataset. Visualization of the attention layers shows that the generator leverages neighborhoods that correspond to object shapes rather than local regions of fixed shape.

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In this paper, we propose to tackle the problem of reducing discrepancies between multiple domains referred to as multi-source domain adaptation and consider it under the target shift assumption: in all domains we aim to solve a classification problem with the same output classes, but with labels' proportions differing across them. We design a method based on optimal transport, a theory that is gaining momentum to tackle adaptation problems in machine learning due to its efficiency in aligning probability distributions. Our method performs multi-source adaptation and target shift correction simultaneously by learning the class probabilities of the unlabeled target sample and the coupling allowing to align two (or more) probability distributions. Experiments on both synthetic and real-world data related to satellite image segmentation task show the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art.

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Generative adversarial networks (GANs) evolved into one of the most successful unsupervised techniques for generating realistic images. Even though it has recently been shown that GAN training converges, GAN models often end up in local Nash equilibria that are associated with mode collapse or otherwise fail to model the target distribution. We introduce Coulomb GANs, which pose the GAN learning problem as a potential field of charged particles, where generated samples are attracted to training set samples but repel each other. The discriminator learns a potential field while the generator decreases the energy by moving its samples along the vector (force) field determined by the gradient of the potential field. Through decreasing the energy, the GAN model learns to generate samples according to the whole target distribution and does not only cover some of its modes. We prove that Coulomb GANs possess only one Nash equilibrium which is optimal in the sense that the model distribution equals the target distribution. We show the efficacy of Coulomb GANs on a variety of image datasets. On LSUN and celebA, Coulomb GANs set a new state of the art and produce a previously unseen variety of different samples.

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