The monitoring and management of numerous and diverse time series data at Alibaba Group calls for an effective and scalable time series anomaly detection service. In this paper, we propose RobustTAD, a Robust Time series Anomaly Detection framework by integrating robust seasonal-trend decomposition and convolutional neural network for time series data. The seasonal-trend decomposition can effectively handle complicated patterns in time series, and meanwhile significantly simplifies the architecture of the neural network, which is an encoder-decoder architecture with skip connections. This architecture can effectively capture the multi-scale information from time series, which is very useful in anomaly detection. Due to the limited labeled data in time series anomaly detection, we systematically investigate data augmentation methods in both time and frequency domains. We also introduce label-based weight and value-based weight in the loss function by utilizing the unbalanced nature of the time series anomaly detection problem. Compared with the widely used forecasting-based anomaly detection algorithms, decomposition-based algorithms, traditional statistical algorithms, as well as recent neural network based algorithms, RobustTAD performs significantly better on public benchmark datasets. It is deployed as a public online service and widely adopted in different business scenarios at Alibaba Group.
It is a common paradigm in object detection frameworks to treat all samples equally and target at maximizing the performance on average. In this work, we revisit this paradigm through a careful study on how different samples contribute to the overall performance measured in terms of mAP. Our study suggests that the samples in each mini-batch are neither independent nor equally important, and therefore a better classifier on average does not necessarily mean higher mAP. Motivated by this study, we propose the notion of Prime Samples, those that play a key role in driving the detection performance. We further develop a simple yet effective sampling and learning strategy called PrIme Sample Attention (PISA) that directs the focus of the training process towards such samples. Our experiments demonstrate that it is often more effective to focus on prime samples than hard samples when training a detector. Particularly, On the MSCOCO dataset, PISA outperforms the random sampling baseline and hard mining schemes, e.g. OHEM and Focal Loss, consistently by more than 1% on both single-stage and two-stage detectors, with a strong backbone ResNeXt-101.
The prevalence of networked sensors and actuators in many real-world systems such as smart buildings, factories, power plants, and data centers generate substantial amounts of multivariate time series data for these systems. The rich sensor data can be continuously monitored for intrusion events through anomaly detection. However, conventional threshold-based anomaly detection methods are inadequate due to the dynamic complexities of these systems, while supervised machine learning methods are unable to exploit the large amounts of data due to the lack of labeled data. On the other hand, current unsupervised machine learning approaches have not fully exploited the spatial-temporal correlation and other dependencies amongst the multiple variables (sensors/actuators) in the system for detecting anomalies. In this work, we propose an unsupervised multivariate anomaly detection method based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Instead of treating each data stream independently, our proposed MAD-GAN framework considers the entire variable set concurrently to capture the latent interactions amongst the variables. We also fully exploit both the generator and discriminator produced by the GAN, using a novel anomaly score called DR-score to detect anomalies by discrimination and reconstruction. We have tested our proposed MAD-GAN using two recent datasets collected from real-world CPS: the Secure Water Treatment (SWaT) and the Water Distribution (WADI) datasets. Our experimental results showed that the proposed MAD-GAN is effective in reporting anomalies caused by various cyber-intrusions compared in these complex real-world systems.
It is important to detect anomalous inputs when deploying machine learning systems. The use of larger and more complex inputs in deep learning magnifies the difficulty of distinguishing between anomalous and in-distribution examples. At the same time, diverse image and text data are available in enormous quantities. We propose leveraging these data to improve deep anomaly detection by training anomaly detectors against an auxiliary dataset of outliers, an approach we call Outlier Exposure (OE). This enables anomaly detectors to generalize and detect unseen anomalies. In extensive experiments on natural language processing and small- and large-scale vision tasks, we find that Outlier Exposure significantly improves detection performance. We also observe that cutting-edge generative models trained on CIFAR-10 may assign higher likelihoods to SVHN images than to CIFAR-10 images; we use OE to mitigate this issue. We also analyze the flexibility and robustness of Outlier Exposure, and identify characteristics of the auxiliary dataset that improve performance.
Accurate detection and tracking of objects is vital for effective video understanding. In previous work, the two tasks have been combined in a way that tracking is based heavily on detection, but the detection benefits marginally from the tracking. To increase synergy, we propose to more tightly integrate the tasks by conditioning the object detection in the current frame on tracklets computed in prior frames. With this approach, the object detection results not only have high detection responses, but also improved coherence with the existing tracklets. This greater coherence leads to estimated object trajectories that are smoother and more stable than the jittered paths obtained without tracklet-conditioned detection. Over extensive experiments, this approach is shown to achieve state-of-the-art performance in terms of both detection and tracking accuracy, as well as noticeable improvements in tracking stability.
In this paper, we propose a simple and general framework for training very tiny CNNs for object detection. Due to limited representation ability, it is challenging to train very tiny networks for complicated tasks like detection. To the best of our knowledge, our method, called Quantization Mimic, is the first one focusing on very tiny networks. We utilize two types of acceleration methods: mimic and quantization. Mimic improves the performance of a student network by transfering knowledge from a teacher network. Quantization converts a full-precision network to a quantized one without large degradation of performance. If the teacher network is quantized, the search scope of the student network will be smaller. Using this feature of the quantization, we propose Quantization Mimic. It first quantizes the large network, then mimic a quantized small network. The quantization operation can help student network to better match the feature maps from teacher network. To evaluate our approach, we carry out experiments on various popular CNNs including VGG and Resnet, as well as different detection frameworks including Faster R-CNN and R-FCN. Experiments on Pascal VOC and WIDER FACE verify that our Quantization Mimic algorithm can be applied on various settings and outperforms state-of-the-art model acceleration methods given limited computing resouces.
Automatic detection of defects in metal castings is a challenging task, owing to the rare occurrence and variation in appearance of defects. However, automatic defect detection systems can lead to significant increases in final product quality. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown outstanding performance in both image classification and localization tasks. In this work, a system is proposed for the identification of casting defects in X-ray images, based on the mask region-based CNN architecture. The proposed defect detection system simultaneously performs defect detection and segmentation on input images, making it suitable for a range of defect detection tasks. It is shown that training the network to simultaneously perform defect detection and defect instance segmentation, results in a higher defect detection accuracy than training on defect detection alone. Transfer learning is leveraged to reduce the training data demands and increase the prediction accuracy of the trained model. More specifically, the model is first trained with two large openly-available image datasets before fine-tuning on a relatively small metal casting X-ray dataset. The accuracy of the trained model exceeds state-of-the art performance on the GDXray Castings dataset and is fast enough to be used in a production setting. The system also performs well on the GDXray Welds dataset. A number of in-depth studies are conducted to explore how transfer learning, multi-task learning, and multi-class learning influence the performance of the trained system.
We propose a Bayesian convolutional neural network built upon Bayes by Backprop and elaborate how this known method can serve as the fundamental construct of our novel, reliable variational inference method for convolutional neural networks. First, we show how Bayes by Backprop can be applied to convolutional layers where weights in filters have probability distributions instead of point-estimates; and second, how our proposed framework leads with various network architectures to performances comparable to convolutional neural networks with point-estimates weights. In the past, Bayes by Backprop has been successfully utilised in feedforward and recurrent neural networks, but not in convolutional ones. This work symbolises the extension of the group of Bayesian neural networks which encompasses all three aforementioned types of network architectures now.
Although it is well believed for years that modeling relations between objects would help object recognition, there has not been evidence that the idea is working in the deep learning era. All state-of-the-art object detection systems still rely on recognizing object instances individually, without exploiting their relations during learning. This work proposes an object relation module. It processes a set of objects simultaneously through interaction between their appearance feature and geometry, thus allowing modeling of their relations. It is lightweight and in-place. It does not require additional supervision and is easy to embed in existing networks. It is shown effective on improving object recognition and duplicate removal steps in the modern object detection pipeline. It verifies the efficacy of modeling object relations in CNN based detection. It gives rise to the first fully end-to-end object detector.
This research mainly emphasizes on traffic detection thus essentially involving object detection and classification. The particular work discussed here is motivated from unsatisfactory attempts of re-using well known pre-trained object detection networks for domain specific data. In this course, some trivial issues leading to prominent performance drop are identified and ways to resolve them are discussed. For example, some simple yet relevant tricks regarding data collection and sampling prove to be very beneficial. Also, introducing a blur net to deal with blurred real time data is another important factor promoting performance elevation. We further study the neural network design issues for beneficial object classification and involve shared, region-independent convolutional features. Adaptive learning rates to deal with saddle points are also investigated and an average covariance matrix based pre-conditioned approach is proposed. We also introduce the use of optical flow features to accommodate orientation information. Experimental results demonstrate that this results in a steady rise in the performance rate.
Deep convolutional neural networks have become a key element in the recent breakthrough of salient object detection. However, existing CNN-based methods are based on either patch-wise (region-wise) training and inference or fully convolutional networks. Methods in the former category are generally time-consuming due to severe storage and computational redundancies among overlapping patches. To overcome this deficiency, methods in the second category attempt to directly map a raw input image to a predicted dense saliency map in a single network forward pass. Though being very efficient, it is arduous for these methods to detect salient objects of different scales or salient regions with weak semantic information. In this paper, we develop hybrid contrast-oriented deep neural networks to overcome the aforementioned limitations. Each of our deep networks is composed of two complementary components, including a fully convolutional stream for dense prediction and a segment-level spatial pooling stream for sparse saliency inference. We further propose an attentional module that learns weight maps for fusing the two saliency predictions from these two streams. A tailored alternate scheme is designed to train these deep networks by fine-tuning pre-trained baseline models. Finally, a customized fully connected CRF model incorporating a salient contour feature embedding can be optionally applied as a post-processing step to improve spatial coherence and contour positioning in the fused result from these two streams. Extensive experiments on six benchmark datasets demonstrate that our proposed model can significantly outperform the state of the art in terms of all popular evaluation metrics.