The accurate and interpretable prediction of future events in time-series data often requires the capturing of representative patterns (or referred to as states) underpinning the observed data. To this end, most existing studies focus on the representation and recognition of states, but ignore the changing transitional relations among them. In this paper, we present evolutionary state graph, a dynamic graph structure designed to systematically represent the evolving relations (edges) among states (nodes) along time. We conduct analysis on the dynamic graphs constructed from the time-series data and show that changes on the graph structures (e.g., edges connecting certain state nodes) can inform the occurrences of events (i.e., time-series fluctuation). Inspired by this, we propose a novel graph neural network model, Evolutionary State Graph Network (EvoNet), to encode the evolutionary state graph for accurate and interpretable time-series event prediction. Specifically, Evolutionary State Graph Network models both the node-level (state-to-state) and graph-level (segment-to-segment) propagation, and captures the node-graph (state-to-segment) interactions over time. Experimental results based on five real-world datasets show that our approach not only achieves clear improvements compared with 11 baselines, but also provides more insights towards explaining the results of event predictions.

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Networking:IFIP International Conferences on Networking。 Explanation:国际网络会议。 Publisher:IFIP。 SIT: http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/networking/index.html

Dynamic recommendation is essential for modern recommender systems to provide real-time predictions based on sequential data. In real-world scenarios, the popularity of items and interests of users change over time. Based on this assumption, many previous works focus on interaction sequences and learn evolutionary embeddings of users and items. However, we argue that sequence-based models are not able to capture collaborative information among users and items directly. Here we propose Dynamic Graph Collaborative Filtering (DGCF), a novel framework leveraging dynamic graphs to capture collaborative and sequential relations of both items and users at the same time. We propose three update mechanisms: zero-order 'inheritance', first-order 'propagation', and second-order 'aggregation', to represent the impact on a user or item when a new interaction occurs. Based on them, we update related user and item embeddings simultaneously when interactions occur in turn, and then use the latest embeddings to make recommendations. Extensive experiments conducted on three public datasets show that DGCF significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art dynamic recommendation methods up to 30. Our approach achieves higher performance when the dataset contains less action repetition, indicating the effectiveness of integrating dynamic collaborative information.

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Knowledge graphs (KGs) of real-world facts about entities and their relationships are useful resources for a variety of natural language processing tasks. However, because knowledge graphs are typically incomplete, it is useful to perform knowledge graph completion or link prediction, i.e. predict whether a relationship not in the knowledge graph is likely to be true. This paper serves as a comprehensive survey of embedding models of entities and relationships for knowledge graph completion, summarizing up-to-date experimental results on standard benchmark datasets and pointing out potential future research directions.

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Target-Based Sentiment Analysis aims to detect the opinion aspects (aspect extraction) and the sentiment polarities (sentiment detection) towards them. Both the previous pipeline and integrated methods fail to precisely model the innate connection between these two objectives. In this paper, we propose a novel dynamic heterogeneous graph to jointly model the two objectives in an explicit way. Both the ordinary words and sentiment labels are treated as nodes in the heterogeneous graph, so that the aspect words can interact with the sentiment information. The graph is initialized with multiple types of dependencies, and dynamically modified during real-time prediction. Experiments on the benchmark datasets show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art models. Further analysis demonstrates that our model obtains significant performance gain on the challenging instances under multiple-opinion aspects and no-opinion aspect situations.

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Many irregular domains such as social networks, financial transactions, neuron connections, and natural language structures are represented as graphs. In recent years, a variety of graph neural networks (GNNs) have been successfully applied for representation learning and prediction on such graphs. However, in many of the applications, the underlying graph changes over time and existing GNNs are inadequate for handling such dynamic graphs. In this paper we propose a novel technique for learning embeddings of dynamic graphs based on a tensor algebra framework. Our method extends the popular graph convolutional network (GCN) for learning representations of dynamic graphs using the recently proposed tensor M-product technique. Theoretical results that establish the connection between the proposed tensor approach and spectral convolution of tensors are developed. Numerical experiments on real datasets demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method for an edge classification task on dynamic graphs.

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Modeling dynamically-evolving, multi-relational graph data has received a surge of interests with the rapid growth of heterogeneous event data. However, predicting future events on such data requires global structure inference over time and the ability to integrate temporal and structural information, which are not yet well understood. We present Recurrent Event Network (RE-Net), a novel autoregressive architecture for modeling temporal sequences of multi-relational graphs (e.g., temporal knowledge graph), which can perform sequential, global structure inference over future time stamps to predict new events. RE-Net employs a recurrent event encoder to model the temporally conditioned joint probability distribution for the event sequences, and equips the event encoder with a neighborhood aggregator for modeling the concurrent events within a time window associated with each entity. We apply teacher forcing for model training over historical data, and infer graph sequences over future time stamps by sampling from the learned joint distribution in a sequential manner. We evaluate the proposed method via temporal link prediction on five public datasets. Extensive experiments demonstrate the strength of RE-Net, especially on multi-step inference over future time stamps. Code and data can be found at https://github.com/INK-USC/RE-Net .

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Recently, there has been a surge of interest in learning representation of graph-structured data that are dynamically evolving. However, current dynamic graph learning methods lack a principled way in modeling temporal, multi-relational, and concurrent interactions between nodes---a limitation that is especially problematic for the task of temporal knowledge graph reasoning, where the goal is to predict unseen entity relationships (i.e., events) over time. Here we present Recurrent Event Network (RE-Net)---a novel neural architecture for modeling complex event sequences---which consists of a recurrent event encoder and a neighborhood aggregator. The event encoder employs an RNN to capture (subject, relation) or (object, relation)-specific patterns from historical, multi-relational interactions between entities. The neighborhood aggregator summarizes concurrent, multi-hop entity interactions within each time stamp. An output layer is designed for predicting forthcoming events. Extensive experiments on temporal link prediction over four public TKG datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and strength of RE-Net, especially on multi-step inference over future time stamps. Code and data are published at the https://github.com/INK-USC/RE-Net {\text{GitHub repository}}.

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Knowledge graph embedding aims to learn distributed representations for entities and relations, and is proven to be effective in many applications. Crossover interactions --- bi-directional effects between entities and relations --- help select related information when predicting a new triple, but haven't been formally discussed before. In this paper, we propose CrossE, a novel knowledge graph embedding which explicitly simulates crossover interactions. It not only learns one general embedding for each entity and relation as most previous methods do, but also generates multiple triple specific embeddings for both of them, named interaction embeddings. We evaluate embeddings on typical link prediction tasks and find that CrossE achieves state-of-the-art results on complex and more challenging datasets. Furthermore, we evaluate embeddings from a new perspective --- giving explanations for predicted triples, which is important for real applications. In this work, an explanation for a triple is regarded as a reliable closed-path between the head and the tail entity. Compared to other baselines, we show experimentally that CrossE, benefiting from interaction embeddings, is more capable of generating reliable explanations to support its predictions.

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Lots of learning tasks require dealing with graph data which contains rich relation information among elements. Modeling physics system, learning molecular fingerprints, predicting protein interface, and classifying diseases require that a model to learn from graph inputs. In other domains such as learning from non-structural data like texts and images, reasoning on extracted structures, like the dependency tree of sentences and the scene graph of images, is an important research topic which also needs graph reasoning models. Graph neural networks (GNNs) are connectionist models that capture the dependence of graphs via message passing between the nodes of graphs. Unlike standard neural networks, graph neural networks retain a state that can represent information from its neighborhood with an arbitrary depth. Although the primitive graph neural networks have been found difficult to train for a fixed point, recent advances in network architectures, optimization techniques, and parallel computation have enabled successful learning with them. In recent years, systems based on graph convolutional network (GCN) and gated graph neural network (GGNN) have demonstrated ground-breaking performance on many tasks mentioned above. In this survey, we provide a detailed review over existing graph neural network models, systematically categorize the applications, and propose four open problems for future research.

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Script event prediction requires a model to predict the subsequent event given an existing event context. Previous models based on event pairs or event chains cannot make full use of dense event connections, which may limit their capability of event prediction. To remedy this, we propose constructing an event graph to better utilize the event network information for script event prediction. In particular, we first extract narrative event chains from large quantities of news corpus, and then construct a narrative event evolutionary graph (NEEG) based on the extracted chains. NEEG can be seen as a knowledge base that describes event evolutionary principles and patterns. To solve the inference problem on NEEG, we present a scaled graph neural network (SGNN) to model event interactions and learn better event representations. Instead of computing the representations on the whole graph, SGNN processes only the concerned nodes each time, which makes our model feasible to large-scale graphs. By comparing the similarity between input context event representations and candidate event representations, we can choose the most reasonable subsequent event. Experimental results on widely used New York Times corpus demonstrate that our model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art baseline methods, by using standard multiple choice narrative cloze evaluation.

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We report an evaluation of the effectiveness of the existing knowledge base embedding models for relation prediction and for relation extraction on a wide range of benchmarks. We also describe a new benchmark, which is much larger and complex than previous ones, which we introduce to help validate the effectiveness of both tasks. The results demonstrate that knowledge base embedding models are generally effective for relation prediction but unable to give improvements for the state-of-art neural relation extraction model with the existing strategies, while pointing limitations of existing methods.

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