相关内容

裘迪亚·珀尔(Judea Pearl)(生于1936年9月4日)是一名以色列裔美国计算机科学家和哲学家,以倡导人工智能的概率方法和贝叶斯网络的发展而闻名。他还因开发基于结构模型的因果和反事实推理理论而受到赞誉。2011年,计算机协会将 Pearl授予图灵奖,是计算机科学领域的最高荣誉,“通过开发概率和因果推理演算对人工智能的基本贡献”

Detection and recognition of text in natural images are two main problems in the field of computer vision that have a wide variety of applications in analysis of sports videos, autonomous driving, industrial automation, to name a few. They face common challenging problems that are factors in how text is represented and affected by several environmental conditions. The current state-of-the-art scene text detection and/or recognition methods have exploited the witnessed advancement in deep learning architectures and reported a superior accuracy on benchmark datasets when tackling multi-resolution and multi-oriented text. However, there are still several remaining challenges affecting text in the wild images that cause existing methods to underperform due to there models are not able to generalize to unseen data and the insufficient labeled data. Thus, unlike previous surveys in this field, the objectives of this survey are as follows: first, offering the reader not only a review on the recent advancement in scene text detection and recognition, but also presenting the results of conducting extensive experiments using a unified evaluation framework that assesses pre-trained models of the selected methods on challenging cases, and applies the same evaluation criteria on these techniques. Second, identifying several existing challenges for detecting or recognizing text in the wild images, namely, in-plane-rotation, multi-oriented and multi-resolution text, perspective distortion, illumination reflection, partial occlusion, complex fonts, and special characters. Finally, the paper also presents insight into the potential research directions in this field to address some of the mentioned challenges that are still encountering scene text detection and recognition techniques.

0
12
下载
预览

Deep neural models in recent years have been successful in almost every field, including extremely complex problem statements. However, these models are huge in size, with millions (and even billions) of parameters, thus demanding more heavy computation power and failing to be deployed on edge devices. Besides, the performance boost is highly dependent on redundant labeled data. To achieve faster speeds and to handle the problems caused by the lack of data, knowledge distillation (KD) has been proposed to transfer information learned from one model to another. KD is often characterized by the so-called `Student-Teacher' (S-T) learning framework and has been broadly applied in model compression and knowledge transfer. This paper is about KD and S-T learning, which are being actively studied in recent years. First, we aim to provide explanations of what KD is and how/why it works. Then, we provide a comprehensive survey on the recent progress of KD methods together with S-T frameworks typically for vision tasks. In general, we consider some fundamental questions that have been driving this research area and thoroughly generalize the research progress and technical details. Additionally, we systematically analyze the research status of KD in vision applications. Finally, we discuss the potentials and open challenges of existing methods and prospect the future directions of KD and S-T learning.

0
9
下载
预览

Since deep neural networks were developed, they have made huge contributions to everyday lives. Machine learning provides more rational advice than humans are capable of in almost every aspect of daily life. However, despite this achievement, the design and training of neural networks are still challenging and unpredictable procedures. To lower the technical thresholds for common users, automated hyper-parameter optimization (HPO) has become a popular topic in both academic and industrial areas. This paper provides a review of the most essential topics on HPO. The first section introduces the key hyper-parameters related to model training and structure, and discusses their importance and methods to define the value range. Then, the research focuses on major optimization algorithms and their applicability, covering their efficiency and accuracy especially for deep learning networks. This study next reviews major services and toolkits for HPO, comparing their support for state-of-the-art searching algorithms, feasibility with major deep learning frameworks, and extensibility for new modules designed by users. The paper concludes with problems that exist when HPO is applied to deep learning, a comparison between optimization algorithms, and prominent approaches for model evaluation with limited computational resources.

0
12
下载
预览

In this paper, we propose a deep reinforcement learning framework called GCOMB to learn algorithms that can solve combinatorial problems over large graphs. GCOMB mimics the greedy algorithm in the original problem and incrementally constructs a solution. The proposed framework utilizes Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) to generate node embeddings that predicts the potential nodes in the solution set from the entire node set. These embeddings enable an efficient training process to learn the greedy policy via Q-learning. Through extensive evaluation on several real and synthetic datasets containing up to a million nodes, we establish that GCOMB is up to 41% better than the state of the art, up to seven times faster than the greedy algorithm, robust and scalable to large dynamic networks.

0
8
下载
预览

This manuscript surveys reinforcement learning from the perspective of optimization and control with a focus on continuous control applications. It surveys the general formulation, terminology, and typical experimental implementations of reinforcement learning and reviews competing solution paradigms. In order to compare the relative merits of various techniques, this survey presents a case study of the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) with unknown dynamics, perhaps the simplest and best studied problem in optimal control. The manuscript describes how merging techniques from learning theory and control can provide non-asymptotic characterizations of LQR performance and shows that these characterizations tend to match experimental behavior. In turn, when revisiting more complex applications, many of the observed phenomena in LQR persist. In particular, theory and experiment demonstrate the role and importance of models and the cost of generality in reinforcement learning algorithms. This survey concludes with a discussion of some of the challenges in designing learning systems that safely and reliably interact with complex and uncertain environments and how tools from reinforcement learning and controls might be combined to approach these challenges.

0
5
下载
预览

In recent years, a specific machine learning method called deep learning has gained huge attraction, as it has obtained astonishing results in broad applications such as pattern recognition, speech recognition, computer vision, and natural language processing. Recent research has also been shown that deep learning techniques can be combined with reinforcement learning methods to learn useful representations for the problems with high dimensional raw data input. This chapter reviews the recent advances in deep reinforcement learning with a focus on the most used deep architectures such as autoencoders, convolutional neural networks and recurrent neural networks which have successfully been come together with the reinforcement learning framework.

0
12
下载
预览

During the recent years, correlation filters have shown dominant and spectacular results for visual object tracking. The types of the features that are employed in these family of trackers significantly affect the performance of visual tracking. The ultimate goal is to utilize robust features invariant to any kind of appearance change of the object, while predicting the object location as properly as in the case of no appearance change. As the deep learning based methods have emerged, the study of learning features for specific tasks has accelerated. For instance, discriminative visual tracking methods based on deep architectures have been studied with promising performance. Nevertheless, correlation filter based (CFB) trackers confine themselves to use the pre-trained networks which are trained for object classification problem. To this end, in this manuscript the problem of learning deep fully convolutional features for the CFB visual tracking is formulated. In order to learn the proposed model, a novel and efficient backpropagation algorithm is presented based on the loss function of the network. The proposed learning framework enables the network model to be flexible for a custom design. Moreover, it alleviates the dependency on the network trained for classification. Extensive performance analysis shows the efficacy of the proposed custom design in the CFB tracking framework. By fine-tuning the convolutional parts of a state-of-the-art network and integrating this model to a CFB tracker, which is the top performing one of VOT2016, 18% increase is achieved in terms of expected average overlap, and tracking failures are decreased by 25%, while maintaining the superiority over the state-of-the-art methods in OTB-2013 and OTB-2015 tracking datasets.

0
9
下载
预览

Machine Learning is a widely-used method for prediction generation. These predictions are more accurate when the model is trained on a larger dataset. On the other hand, the data is usually divided amongst different entities. For privacy reasons, the training can be done locally and then the model can be safely aggregated amongst the participants. However, if there are only two participants in \textit{Collaborative Learning}, the safe aggregation loses its power since the output of the training already contains much information about the participants. To resolve this issue, they must employ privacy-preserving mechanisms, which inevitably affect the accuracy of the model. In this paper, we model the training process as a two-player game where each player aims to achieve a higher accuracy while preserving its privacy. We introduce the notion of \textit{Price of Privacy}, a novel approach to measure the effect of privacy protection on the accuracy of the model. We develop a theoretical model for different player types, and we either find or prove the existence of a Nash Equilibrium with some assumptions. Moreover, we confirm these assumptions via a Recommendation Systems use case: for a specific learning algorithm, we apply three privacy-preserving mechanisms on two real-world datasets. Finally, as a complementary work for the designed game, we interpolate the relationship between privacy and accuracy for this use case and present three other methods to approximate it in a real-world scenario.

0
4
下载
预览

The text of a review expresses the sentiment a customer has towards a particular product. This is exploited in sentiment analysis where machine learning models are used to predict the review score from the text of the review. Furthermore, the products costumers have purchased in the past are indicative of the products they will purchase in the future. This is what recommender systems exploit by learning models from purchase information to predict the items a customer might be interested in. We propose TransRev, an approach to the product recommendation problem that integrates ideas from recommender systems, sentiment analysis, and multi-relational learning into a joint learning objective. TransRev learns vector representations for users, items, and reviews. The embedding of a review is learned such that (a) it performs well as input feature of a regression model for sentiment prediction; and (b) it always translates the reviewer embedding to the embedding of the reviewed items. This allows TransRev to approximate a review embedding at test time as the difference of the embedding of each item and the user embedding. The approximated review embedding is then used with the regression model to predict the review score for each item. TransRev outperforms state of the art recommender systems on a large number of benchmark data sets. Moreover, it is able to retrieve, for each user and item, the review text from the training set whose embedding is most similar to the approximated review embedding.

0
8
下载
预览
小贴士
相关论文
Zobeir Raisi,Mohamed A. Naiel,Paul Fieguth,Steven Wardell,John Zelek
12+阅读 · 2020年6月8日
Hyper-Parameter Optimization: A Review of Algorithms and Applications
Tong Yu,Hong Zhu
12+阅读 · 2020年3月12日
Akash Mittal,Anuj Dhawan,Sourav Medya,Sayan Ranu,Ambuj Singh
8+阅读 · 2019年3月8日
Benjamin Recht
5+阅读 · 2018年6月25日
Seyed Sajad Mousavi,Michael Schukat,Enda Howley
12+阅读 · 2018年6月23日
Anthony Hu,Seth Flaxman
19+阅读 · 2018年5月25日
Erhan Gundogdu,A. Aydin Alatan
9+阅读 · 2018年3月10日
Balazs Pejo,Qiang Tang
4+阅读 · 2018年2月28日
Alberto Garcia-Duran,Roberto Gonzalez,Daniel Onoro-Rubio,Mathias Niepert,Hui Li
8+阅读 · 2018年1月30日
相关资讯
计算机 | 入门级EI会议ICVRIS 2019诚邀稿件
Call4Papers
10+阅读 · 2019年6月24日
Hierarchically Structured Meta-learning
CreateAMind
11+阅读 · 2019年5月22日
Unsupervised Learning via Meta-Learning
CreateAMind
29+阅读 · 2019年1月3日
RL 真经
CreateAMind
4+阅读 · 2018年12月28日
A Technical Overview of AI & ML in 2018 & Trends for 2019
待字闺中
10+阅读 · 2018年12月24日
LibRec 精选:推荐系统的论文与源码
LibRec智能推荐
12+阅读 · 2018年11月29日
笔记 | Sentiment Analysis
黑龙江大学自然语言处理实验室
8+阅读 · 2018年5月6日
Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction 2018第二版 500页
CreateAMind
9+阅读 · 2018年4月27日
Andrew NG的新书《Machine Learning Yearning》
我爱机器学习
8+阅读 · 2016年12月7日
Top