** The field of quantum information is becoming more known to the general public. However, effectively demonstrating the concepts underneath quantum science and technology to the general public can be a challenging job. We investigate, extend, and much expand here "quantum candies" (invented by Jacobs), a pedagogical model for intuitively describing some basic concepts in quantum information, including quantum bits, complementarity, the no-cloning principle, and entanglement. Following Jacob's quantum candies description of the well-known quantum key distribution protocol BB84, we explicitly demonstrate various additional quantum cryptography protocols using quantum candies in an approachable manner. The model we investigate can be a valuable tool for science and engineering educators who would like to help the general public to gain more insights into quantum science and technology: most parts of this paper, including many protocols for quantum cryptography, are expected to be easily understandable by a layperson without any previous knowledge of mathematics, physics, or cryptography. **

《计算机信息》杂志发表高质量的论文，扩大了运筹学和计算的范围，寻求有关理论、方法、实验、系统和应用方面的原创研究论文、新颖的调查和教程论文，以及描述新的和有用的软件工具的论文。官网链接：https://pubsonline.informs.org/journal/ijoc

** Scaling current quantum communication demonstrations to a large-scale quantum network will require not only advancements in quantum hardware capabilities, but also robust control of such devices to bridge the gap to user demand. Moreover, the abstraction of tasks and services offered by the quantum network should enable platform-independent applications to be executed without knowledge of the underlying physical implementation. Here we experimentally demonstrate, using remote solid-state quantum network nodes, a link layer and a physical layer protocol for entanglement-based quantum networks. The link layer abstracts the physical-layer entanglement attempts into a robust, platform-independent entanglement delivery service. The system is used to run full state tomography of the delivered entangled states, as well as preparation of a remote qubit state on a server by its client. Our results mark a clear transition from physics experiments to quantum communication systems, which will enable the development and testing of components of future quantum networks. **

Solving Large Steiner Tree Problems in Graphs for Cost-Efficient Fiber-To-The-Home Network Expansion

** The expansion of Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) networks creates high costs due to expensive excavation procedures. Optimizing the planning process and minimizing the cost of the earth excavation work therefore lead to large savings. Mathematically, the FTTH network problem can be described as a minimum Steiner Tree problem. Even though the Steiner Tree problem has already been investigated intensively in the last decades, it might be further optimized with the help of new computing paradigms and emerging approaches. This work studies upcoming technologies, such as Quantum Annealing, Simulated Annealing and nature-inspired methods like Evolutionary Algorithms or slime-mold-based optimization. Additionally, we investigate partitioning and simplifying methods. Evaluated on several real-life problem instances, we could outperform a traditional, widely-used baseline (NetworkX Approximate Solver) on most of the domains. Prior partitioning of the initial graph and the presented slime-mold-based approach were especially valuable for a cost-efficient approximation. Quantum Annealing seems promising, but was limited by the number of available qubits. **

** A major difficulty in quantum rewinding is the fact that measurement is destructive: extracting information from a quantum state irreversibly changes it. This is especially problematic in the context of zero-knowledge simulation, where preserving the adversary's state is essential. In this work, we develop new techniques for quantum rewinding in the context of extraction and zero-knowledge simulation: (1) We show how to extract information from a quantum adversary by rewinding it without disturbing its internal state. We use this technique to prove that important interactive protocols, such as the Goldreich-Micali-Wigderson protocol for graph non-isomorphism and the Feige-Shamir protocol for NP, are zero-knowledge against quantum adversaries. (2) We prove that the Goldreich-Kahan protocol for NP is post-quantum zero knowledge using a simulator that can be seen as a natural quantum extension of the classical simulator. Our results achieve (constant-round) black-box zero-knowledge with negligible simulation error, appearing to contradict a recent impossibility result due to Chia-Chung-Liu-Yamakawa (FOCS 2021). This brings us to our final contribution: (3) We introduce coherent-runtime expected quantum polynomial time, a computational model that (a) captures all of our zero-knowledge simulators, (b) cannot break any polynomial hardness assumptions, and (c) is not subject to the CCLY impossibility. In light of our positive results and the CCLY negative results, we propose coherent-runtime simulation to be the right quantum analogue of classical expected polynomial-time simulation. **

** We show how to translate a subset of RISC-V machine code compiled from a subset of C to quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) models that can be solved by a quantum annealing machine: given a bound $n$, there is input $I$ to a program $P$ such that $P$ runs into a given program state $E$ executing no more than $n$ machine instructions if and only if the QUBO model of $P$ for $n$ evaluates to 0 on $I$. Thus, with more qubits on the machine than variables in the QUBO model, quantum annealing the model reaches 0 (ground) energy in constant time with high probability on some input $I$ that is part of the ground state if and only if $P$ runs into $E$ on $I$ executing no more than $n$ instructions. Translation takes $\mathcal{O}(n^2)$ time effectively turning a quantum annealer into a polynomial-time symbolic execution engine and bounded model checker, eliminating their path and state explosion problems. Here, we take advantage of the fact that any machine instruction may only increase the size of the program state by a constant amount of bits. Translation time comes down from $\mathcal{O}(n^2)$ to $\mathcal{O}(n\cdot|P|)$ if memory consumption of $P$ is bounded by a constant, establishing a linear (quadratic) upper bound on quantum space, in number of qubits on a quantum annealer, in terms of algorithmic time (space) in classical computing. Our prototypical open-source toolchain translates machine code that runs on real RISC-V hardware to models that can be solved by real quantum annealing hardware, as shown in our experiments. **

** The advent of noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) computers raises a crucial challenge to design quantum neural networks for fully quantum learning tasks. To bridge the gap, this work proposes an end-to-end learning framework named QTN-VQC, by introducing a trainable quantum tensor network (QTN) for quantum embedding on a variational quantum circuit (VQC). The architecture of QTN is composed of a parametric tensor-train network for feature extraction and a tensor product encoding for quantum embedding. We highlight the QTN for quantum embedding in terms of two perspectives: (1) we theoretically characterize QTN by analyzing its representation power of input features; (2) QTN enables an end-to-end parametric model pipeline, namely QTN-VQC, from the generation of quantum embedding to the output measurement. Our experiments on the MNIST dataset demonstrate the advantages of QTN for quantum embedding over other quantum embedding approaches. **

** Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection is critical to ensuring the reliability and safety of machine learning systems. For instance, in autonomous driving, we would like the driving system to issue an alert and hand over the control to humans when it detects unusual scenes or objects that it has never seen before and cannot make a safe decision. This problem first emerged in 2017 and since then has received increasing attention from the research community, leading to a plethora of methods developed, ranging from classification-based to density-based to distance-based ones. Meanwhile, several other problems are closely related to OOD detection in terms of motivation and methodology. These include anomaly detection (AD), novelty detection (ND), open set recognition (OSR), and outlier detection (OD). Despite having different definitions and problem settings, these problems often confuse readers and practitioners, and as a result, some existing studies misuse terms. In this survey, we first present a generic framework called generalized OOD detection, which encompasses the five aforementioned problems, i.e., AD, ND, OSR, OOD detection, and OD. Under our framework, these five problems can be seen as special cases or sub-tasks, and are easier to distinguish. Then, we conduct a thorough review of each of the five areas by summarizing their recent technical developments. We conclude this survey with open challenges and potential research directions. **

** In recent years, disinformation including fake news, has became a global phenomenon due to its explosive growth, particularly on social media. The wide spread of disinformation and fake news can cause detrimental societal effects. Despite the recent progress in detecting disinformation and fake news, it is still non-trivial due to its complexity, diversity, multi-modality, and costs of fact-checking or annotation. The goal of this chapter is to pave the way for appreciating the challenges and advancements via: (1) introducing the types of information disorder on social media and examine their differences and connections; (2) describing important and emerging tasks to combat disinformation for characterization, detection and attribution; and (3) discussing a weak supervision approach to detect disinformation with limited labeled data. We then provide an overview of the chapters in this book that represent the recent advancements in three related parts: (1) user engagements in the dissemination of information disorder; (2) techniques on detecting and mitigating disinformation; and (3) trending issues such as ethics, blockchain, clickbaits, etc. We hope this book to be a convenient entry point for researchers, practitioners, and students to understand the problems and challenges, learn state-of-the-art solutions for their specific needs, and quickly identify new research problems in their domains. **

** Deep learning has been successfully applied to solve various complex problems ranging from big data analytics to computer vision and human-level control. Deep learning advances however have also been employed to create software that can cause threats to privacy, democracy and national security. One of those deep learning-powered applications recently emerged is "deepfake". Deepfake algorithms can create fake images and videos that humans cannot distinguish them from authentic ones. The proposal of technologies that can automatically detect and assess the integrity of digital visual media is therefore indispensable. This paper presents a survey of algorithms used to create deepfakes and, more importantly, methods proposed to detect deepfakes in the literature to date. We present extensive discussions on challenges, research trends and directions related to deepfake technologies. By reviewing the background of deepfakes and state-of-the-art deepfake detection methods, this study provides a comprehensive overview of deepfake techniques and facilitates the development of new and more robust methods to deal with the increasingly challenging deepfakes. **

** Quantum machine learning is expected to be one of the first potential general-purpose applications of near-term quantum devices. A major recent breakthrough in classical machine learning is the notion of generative adversarial training, where the gradients of a discriminator model are used to train a separate generative model. In this work and a companion paper, we extend adversarial training to the quantum domain and show how to construct generative adversarial networks using quantum circuits. Furthermore, we also show how to compute gradients -- a key element in generative adversarial network training -- using another quantum circuit. We give an example of a simple practical circuit ansatz to parametrize quantum machine learning models and perform a simple numerical experiment to demonstrate that quantum generative adversarial networks can be trained successfully. **