Deep learning has shown remarkable progress in a wide range of problems. However, efficient training of such models requires large-scale datasets, and getting annotations for such datasets can be challenging and costly. In this work, we explore the use of user-generated freely available labels from web videos for video understanding. We create a benchmark dataset consisting of around 2 million videos with associated user-generated annotations and other meta information. We utilize the collected dataset for action classification and demonstrate its usefulness with existing small-scale annotated datasets, UCF101 and HMDB51. We study different loss functions and two pretraining strategies, simple and self-supervised learning. We also show how a network pretrained on the proposed dataset can help against video corruption and label noise in downstream datasets. We present this as a benchmark dataset in noisy learning for video understanding. The dataset, code, and trained models will be publicly available for future research.
We present IndoNLI, the first human-elicited NLI dataset for Indonesian. We adapt the data collection protocol for MNLI and collect nearly 18K sentence pairs annotated by crowd workers and experts. The expert-annotated data is used exclusively as a test set. It is designed to provide a challenging test-bed for Indonesian NLI by explicitly incorporating various linguistic phenomena such as numerical reasoning, structural changes, idioms, or temporal and spatial reasoning. Experiment results show that XLM-R outperforms other pre-trained models in our data. The best performance on the expert-annotated data is still far below human performance (13.4% accuracy gap), suggesting that this test set is especially challenging. Furthermore, our analysis shows that our expert-annotated data is more diverse and contains fewer annotation artifacts than the crowd-annotated data. We hope this dataset can help accelerate progress in Indonesian NLP research.
Data augmentation has been shown to effectively improve the performance of multimodal machine learning models. This paper introduces a generative model for data augmentation by leveraging the correlations among multiple modalities. Different from conventional data augmentation approaches that apply low-level operations with deterministic heuristics, our method learns a generator that generates samples of the target modality conditioned on observed modalities in the variational auto-encoder framework. Additionally, the proposed model is able to quantify the confidence of augmented data by its generative probability, and can be jointly optimised with a downstream task. Experiments on Visual Question Answering as downstream task demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed generative model, which is able to improve strong UpDn-based models to achieve state-of-the-art performance.
Semantic segmentation is key in autonomous driving. Using deep visual learning architectures is not trivial in this context, because of the challenges in creating suitable large scale annotated datasets. This issue has been traditionally circumvented through the use of synthetic datasets, that have become a popular resource in this field. They have been released with the need to develop semantic segmentation algorithms able to close the visual domain shift between the training and test data. Although exacerbated by the use of artificial data, the problem is extremely relevant in this field even when training on real data. Indeed, weather conditions, viewpoint changes and variations in the city appearances can vary considerably from car to car, and even at test time for a single, specific vehicle. How to deal with domain adaptation in semantic segmentation, and how to leverage effectively several different data distributions (source domains) are important research questions in this field. To support work in this direction, this paper contributes a new large scale, synthetic dataset for semantic segmentation with more than 100 different source visual domains. The dataset has been created to explicitly address the challenges of domain shift between training and test data in various weather and view point conditions, in seven different city types. Extensive benchmark experiments assess the dataset, showcasing open challenges for the current state of the art. The dataset will be available at: https://idda-dataset.github.io/home/ .
Deep models trained in supervised mode have achieved remarkable success on a variety of tasks. When labeled samples are limited, self-supervised learning (SSL) is emerging as a new paradigm for making use of large amounts of unlabeled samples. SSL has achieved promising performance on natural language and image learning tasks. Recently, there is a trend to extend such success to graph data using graph neural networks (GNNs). In this survey, we provide a unified review of different ways of training GNNs using SSL. Specifically, we categorize SSL methods into contrastive and predictive models. In either category, we provide a unified framework for methods as well as how these methods differ in each component under the framework. Our unified treatment of SSL methods for GNNs sheds light on the similarities and differences of various methods, setting the stage for developing new methods and algorithms. We also summarize different SSL settings and the corresponding datasets used in each setting. To facilitate methodological development and empirical comparison, we develop a standardized testbed for SSL in GNNs, including implementations of common baseline methods, datasets, and evaluation metrics.
Query understanding is a fundamental problem in information retrieval (IR), which has attracted continuous attention through the past decades. Many different tasks have been proposed for understanding users' search queries, e.g., query classification or query clustering. However, it is not that precise to understand a search query at the intent class/cluster level due to the loss of many detailed information. As we may find in many benchmark datasets, e.g., TREC and SemEval, queries are often associated with a detailed description provided by human annotators which clearly describes its intent to help evaluate the relevance of the documents. If a system could automatically generate a detailed and precise intent description for a search query, like human annotators, that would indicate much better query understanding has been achieved. In this paper, therefore, we propose a novel Query-to-Intent-Description (Q2ID) task for query understanding. Unlike those existing ranking tasks which leverage the query and its description to compute the relevance of documents, Q2ID is a reverse task which aims to generate a natural language intent description based on both relevant and irrelevant documents of a given query. To address this new task, we propose a novel Contrastive Generation model, namely CtrsGen for short, to generate the intent description by contrasting the relevant documents with the irrelevant documents given a query. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our model by comparing with several state-of-the-art generation models on the Q2ID task. We discuss the potential usage of such Q2ID technique through an example application.
We propose a novel framework to perform classification via deep learning in the presence of noisy annotations. When trained on noisy labels, deep neural networks have been observed to first fit the training data with clean labels during an "early learning" phase, before eventually memorizing the examples with false labels. We prove that early learning and memorization are fundamental phenomena in high-dimensional classification tasks, even in simple linear models, and give a theoretical explanation in this setting. Motivated by these findings, we develop a new technique for noisy classification tasks, which exploits the progress of the early learning phase. In contrast with existing approaches, which use the model output during early learning to detect the examples with clean labels, and either ignore or attempt to correct the false labels, we take a different route and instead capitalize on early learning via regularization. There are two key elements to our approach. First, we leverage semi-supervised learning techniques to produce target probabilities based on the model outputs. Second, we design a regularization term that steers the model towards these targets, implicitly preventing memorization of the false labels. The resulting framework is shown to provide robustness to noisy annotations on several standard benchmarks and real-world datasets, where it achieves results comparable to the state of the art.
Deep learning has become the most widely used approach for cardiac image segmentation in recent years. In this paper, we provide a review of over 100 cardiac image segmentation papers using deep learning, which covers common imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US) and major anatomical structures of interest (ventricles, atria and vessels). In addition, a summary of publicly available cardiac image datasets and code repositories are included to provide a base for encouraging reproducible research. Finally, we discuss the challenges and limitations with current deep learning-based approaches (scarcity of labels, model generalizability across different domains, interpretability) and suggest potential directions for future research.
Existing Earth Vision datasets are either suitable for semantic segmentation or object detection. In this work, we introduce the first benchmark dataset for instance segmentation in aerial imagery that combines instance-level object detection and pixel-level segmentation tasks. In comparison to instance segmentation in natural scenes, aerial images present unique challenges e.g., a huge number of instances per image, large object-scale variations and abundant tiny objects. Our large-scale and densely annotated Instance Segmentation in Aerial Images Dataset (iSAID) comes with 655,451 object instances for 15 categories across 2,806 high-resolution images. Such precise per-pixel annotations for each instance ensure accurate localization that is essential for detailed scene analysis. Compared to existing small-scale aerial image based instance segmentation datasets, iSAID contains 15$\times$ the number of object categories and 5$\times$ the number of instances. We benchmark our dataset using two popular instance segmentation approaches for natural images, namely Mask R-CNN and PANet. In our experiments we show that direct application of off-the-shelf Mask R-CNN and PANet on aerial images provide suboptimal instance segmentation results, thus requiring specialized solutions from the research community. The dataset is publicly available at: https://captain-whu.github.io/iSAID/index.html
Videos are a rich source of high-dimensional structured data, with a wide range of interacting components at varying levels of granularity. In order to improve understanding of unconstrained internet videos, it is important to consider the role of labels at separate levels of abstraction. In this paper, we consider the use of the Bidirectional Inference Neural Network (BINN) for performing graph-based inference in label space for the task of video classification. We take advantage of the inherent hierarchy between labels at increasing granularity. The BINN is evaluated on the first and second release of the YouTube-8M large scale multilabel video dataset. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of BINN, achieving significant improvements against baseline models.
Spatiotemporal feature learning in videos is a fundamental and difficult problem in computer vision. This paper presents a new architecture, termed as Appearance-and-Relation Network (ARTNet), to learn video representation in an end-to-end manner. ARTNets are constructed by stacking multiple generic building blocks, called as SMART, whose goal is to simultaneously model appearance and relation from RGB input in a separate and explicit manner. Specifically, SMART blocks decouple the spatiotemporal learning module into an appearance branch for spatial modeling and a relation branch for temporal modeling. The appearance branch is implemented based on the linear combination of pixels or filter responses in each frame, while the relation branch is designed based on the multiplicative interactions between pixels or filter responses across multiple frames. We perform experiments on three action recognition benchmarks: Kinetics, UCF101, and HMDB51, demonstrating that SMART blocks obtain an evident improvement over 3D convolutions for spatiotemporal feature learning. Under the same training setting, ARTNets achieve superior performance on these three datasets to the existing state-of-the-art methods.