知识表示(knowledge representation)是指把知识客体中的知识因子与知识关联起来,便于人们识别和理解知识。知识表示是知识组织的前提和基础,任何知识组织方法都是要建立在知识表示的基础上。知识表示有主观知识表示和客观知识表示两种。

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摘要: 知识图谱的概念由谷歌于2012年提出,随后逐渐成为人工智能领域的一个研究热点,已在信息搜索、自动问答、决策分析等应用中发挥作用。虽然知识图谱在各领域展现出了巨大的潜力,但不难发现目前缺乏成熟的知识图谱构建平台,需要对知识图谱的构建体系进行研究,以满足不同的行业应用需求。文中以知识图谱构建为主线,首先介绍目前主流的通用知识图谱和领域知识图谱,描述两者在构建过程中的区别;然后,分类讨论图谱构建过程中存在的问题和挑战,并针对这些问题和挑战,分类描述目前图谱构建过程中的知识抽取、知识表示、知识融合、知识推理、知识存储5个层面的解决方法和策略;最后,展望未来可能的研究方向。

http://www.jsjkx.com/CN/10.11896/jsjkx.200700010

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The use of semantic technologies is gaining significant traction in science communication with a wide array of applications in disciplines including the Life Sciences, Computer Science, and the Social Sciences. Languages like RDF, OWL, and other formalisms based on formal logic are applied to make scientific knowledge accessible not only to human readers but also to automated systems. These approaches have mostly focused on the structure of scientific publications themselves, on the used scientific methods and equipment, or on the structure of the used datasets. The core claims or hypotheses of scientific work have only been covered in a shallow manner, such as by linking mentioned entities to established identifiers. In this research, we therefore want to find out whether we can use existing semantic formalisms to fully express the content of high-level scientific claims using formal semantics in a systematic way. Analyzing the main claims from a sample of scientific articles from all disciplines, we find that their semantics are more complex than what a straight-forward application of formalisms like RDF or OWL account for, but we managed to elicit a clear semantic pattern which we call the 'super-pattern'. We show here how the instantiation of the five slots of this super-pattern leads to a strictly defined statement in higher-order logic. We successfully applied this super-pattern to an enlarged sample of scientific claims. We show that knowledge representation experts, when instructed to independently instantiate the super-pattern with given scientific claims, show a high degree of consistency and convergence given the complexity of the task and the subject. These results therefore open the door for expressing high-level scientific findings in a manner they can be automatically interpreted, which on the longer run can allow us to do automated consistency checking, and much more.

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