统计方法是指有关收集、整理、分析和解释统计数据,并对其所反映的问题作出一定结论的方法。统计方法是一种从微观结构上来研究物质的宏观性质及其规律的独特的方法。

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这本书没有假设读者在统计方面有任何预先训练,这本书的第一部分描述了基本的统计原理,从一个观点,使他们的缺点直观和容易理解。重点是用语言和图形来描述概念。第二部分描述了解决第一部分所涵盖问题的现代方法。使用来自实际研究的数据,包括许多例子来说明传统程序的实际问题,以及更多的现代方法如何能对统计研究的许多领域中得出的结论产生实质性的影响。

这本书的第二版包括了自从第一版出现以来发生的一些进展和见解。包括与中位数相关的新结果,回归,关联的测量,比较依赖组的策略,处理异方差的方法,以及效应量的测量。

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Electroencephalograms (EEG) are noninvasive measurement signals of electrical neuronal activity in the brain. One of the current major statistical challenges is formally measuring functional dependency between those complex signals. This paper, proposes the spectral causality model (SCAU), a robust linear model, under a causality paradigm, to reflect inter- and intra-frequency modulation effects that cannot be identifiable using other methods. SCAU inference is conducted with three main steps: (a) signal decomposition into frequency bins, (b) intermediate spectral band mapping, and (c) dependency modeling through frequency-specific autoregressive models (VAR). We apply SCAU to study complex dependencies during visual and lexical fluency tasks (word generation and visual fixation) in 26 participants' EEGs. We compared the connectivity networks estimated using SCAU with respect to a VAR model. SCAU networks show a clear contrast for both stimuli while the magnitude links also denoted a low variance in comparison with the VAR networks. Furthermore, SCAU dependency connections not only were consistent with findings in the neuroscience literature, but it also provided further evidence on the directionality of the spatio-spectral dependencies such as the delta-originated and theta-induced links in the fronto-temporal brain network.

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