Session-based recommendation targets next-item prediction by exploiting user behaviors within a short time period. Compared with other recommendation paradigms, session-based recommendation suffers more from the problem of data sparsity due to the very limited short-term interactions. Self-supervised learning, which can discover ground-truth samples from the raw data, holds vast potentials to tackle this problem. However, existing self-supervised recommendation models mainly rely on item/segment dropout to augment data, which are not fit for session-based recommendation because the dropout leads to sparser data, creating unserviceable self-supervision signals. In this paper, for informative session-based data augmentation, we combine self-supervised learning with co-training, and then develop a framework to enhance session-based recommendation. Technically, we first exploit the session-based graph to augment two views that exhibit the internal and external connectivities of sessions, and then we build two distinct graph encoders over the two views, which recursively leverage the different connectivity information to generate ground-truth samples to supervise each other by contrastive learning. In contrast to the dropout strategy, the proposed self-supervised graph co-training preserves the complete session information and fulfills genuine data augmentation. Extensive experiments on multiple benchmark datasets show that, session-based recommendation can be remarkably enhanced under the regime of self-supervised graph co-training, achieving the state-of-the-art performance.