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报告主题:When flying is cheaper than standing still

报告摘要: 很难忽视对自治和机器人技术的关注。影响是巨大的,影响范围很广,包括无人驾驶汽车的运输,移动机器人的物流和供应,以及飞机或无人机的遥感应用。拉斐尔·安德里亚(Raffaello D'Andrea)探索了自主室内无人机将如何推动下一波自主机器人技术的发展和增长。

邀请嘉宾:Raffaello D'Andrea是全球领先的自动室内无人机系统提供商Verity的创始人,首席执行官兼董事长。ROBO Global的联合创始人,世界上第一个机器人交易所交易基金的创建者;苏黎世联邦理工学院动力系统与控制教授(休假)。他于2003年与他人共同创立了Kiva Systems(现为Amazon Robotics)。从1999年至2003年,他曾四次夺得世界冠军康奈尔RoboCup团队的系统架构师和教职顾问。此外,他还是一位新媒体艺术家,并在各个国际场所举办过展览,包括威尼斯双年展,FRAC中心和加拿大国家美术馆。其他创作和项目包括“飞行器竞技场”,“分布式飞行阵列”,“平衡立方体”,“ Cubli”,“飞行组装式建筑”,“盲杂耍者”,“机器人座椅”和“机器人地球”。他的TED演讲有近2000万次,两次演讲激发了一代人追求工程技术,机器人技术和计算机科学的灵感。

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Many applications require robots to move through terrain with large obstacles, such as self-driving, search and rescue, and extraterrestrial exploration. Although robots are already excellent at avoiding sparse obstacles, they still struggle in traversing cluttered obstacles. Inspired by cockroaches that use and respond to physical interaction with obstacles in various ways to traverse grass-like beams with different stiffness, here we developed a physics model of a minimalistic robot capable of environmental force sensing propelled forward to traverse two beams to simulate and understand the traversal of cluttered obstacles. Beam properties like stiffness and deflection locations could be estimated from the noisy beam contact forces measured, whose fidelity increased with sensing time. Using these estimates, the model predicted the cost of traversal defined using potential energy barriers and used it to plan and control the robot to generate and track a trajectory to traverse with minimal cost. When encountering stiff beams, the simulation robot transitioned from a more costly pitch mode to a less costly roll mode to traverse. When encountering flimsy beams, it chose to push cross beams with less energy cost than avoiding beams. Finally, we developed a physical robot and demonstrated the usefulness of the estimation method.

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