计算学习理论(Computational learning theory)研究的是关于通过“计算”来进行“学习”的理论,即关于机器学习的理论基础,其目的是分析学习任务的困难本质,为学习算法提供理论保证,并根据分析结果指导算法设计。

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摘要:深度学习是近年来应用最广泛的心脏图像分割方法。在这篇文章中,我们回顾了超过100篇使用深度学习的心脏图像分割论文,这些论文涵盖了常见的成像方式,包括磁共振成像(MRI)、计算机断层扫描(CT)和超声(US)以及感兴趣的主要解剖结构(心室、心房和血管)。此外,公开可用的心脏图像数据集和代码库的摘要也包括在内,为鼓励重复性研究提供了基础。最后,我们讨论了当前基于深度学习的方法的挑战和局限性(缺乏标签、不同领域的模型可泛化性、可解释性),并提出了未来研究的潜在方向。

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The quest of `can machines think' and `can machines do what human do' are quests that drive the development of artificial intelligence. Although recent artificial intelligence succeeds in many data intensive applications, it still lacks the ability of learning from limited exemplars and fast generalizing to new tasks. To tackle this problem, one has to turn to machine learning, which supports the scientific study of artificial intelligence. Particularly, a machine learning problem called Few-Shot Learning (FSL) targets at this case. It can rapidly generalize to new tasks of limited supervised experience by turning to prior knowledge, which mimics human's ability to acquire knowledge from few examples through generalization and analogy. It has been seen as a test-bed for real artificial intelligence, a way to reduce laborious data gathering and computationally costly training, and antidote for rare cases learning. With extensive works on FSL emerging, we give a comprehensive survey for it. We first give the formal definition for FSL. Then we point out the core issues of FSL, which turns the problem from "how to solve FSL" to "how to deal with the core issues". Accordingly, existing works from the birth of FSL to the most recent published ones are categorized in a unified taxonomy, with thorough discussion of the pros and cons for different categories. Finally, we envision possible future directions for FSL in terms of problem setup, techniques, applications and theory, hoping to provide insights to both beginners and experienced researchers.

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From ancient to modern times, acoustic structures have been used to control the propagation of acoustic waves. However, the design of the acoustic structures has remained widely a time-consuming and computational resource-consuming iterative process. In recent years, Deep Learning has attracted unprecedented attention for its ability to tackle hard problems with huge datasets, which has achieved state-of-the-art results in various tasks. In this work, an acoustic structure design method is proposed based on deep learning. Taking the design of multi-order Helmholtz resonator for instance, we experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Our method is not only able to give a very accurate prediction of the geometry of the acoustic structures with multiple strong-coupling parameters, but also capable of improving the performance of evolutionary approaches in optimization for a desired property. Compared with the conventional numerical methods, our method is more efficient, universal and automatic, which has a wide range of potential applications, such as speech enhancement, sound absorption and insulation.

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From ancient to modern times, acoustic structures have been used to control the propagation of acoustic waves. However, the design of the acoustic structures has remained widely a time-consuming and computational resource-consuming iterative process. In recent years, Deep Learning has attracted unprecedented attention for its ability to tackle hard problems with huge datasets, which has achieved state-of-the-art results in various tasks. In this work, an acoustic structure design method is proposed based on deep learning. Taking the design of multi-order Helmholtz resonator for instance, we experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Our method is not only able to give a very accurate prediction of the geometry of the acoustic structures with multiple strong-coupling parameters, but also capable of improving the performance of evolutionary approaches in optimization for a desired property. Compared with the conventional numerical methods, our method is more efficient, universal and automatic, which has a wide range of potential applications, such as speech enhancement, sound absorption and insulation.

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